Sociology Context of Health and Social Care


The sociology in health and social care examines the interaction between health and society. The objective of social life is that how it affect on the morality rate and morbidity or vice versa. The sociology differs from the medical sociology. A sociology discuss health and illness in relation to social institution which include family, employment etc. Sociologist argues that health and illness have two aspects (Abraham, 2010). The first is biological, states of discomfort which is considered as illness. Second is how the concept of health and illness are themselves considered. In this report Wellington hospital is taken who provides the services in terms of cardiac, orthopaedics and other kind of services. Here the present report considered multidisciplinary community which includes the social workers, nurse. Further, the inequalities which exists in health and social has been explained. Along with this how inequalities will impact on the individual health and status has been discussed. The implication of health and social care issues is also explained.

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Task 1

1.1 Political, social, economic construct can be used in categorises society

In multidisciplinary community the social workers are havingfundamental goals such as they strengthening ability of individuals and cope up with them challenges or many difficulties which they will face in their life and to improve their various social needs through the satisfaction of human needs (Best and et. al., 2012). The political, economic and social factor can construct the society of those people who are suffering form many diseases. These are explained as below.

Political and economic construct– It includes the age, gender, ethnicity, social class, partnership formation and many more. These are explained as below.

Age and gender – In multidisciplinary community there are many people who lives in the health and social care organisation. Form the below figure it could be analyse that there are many small age people who are leaving hospitals and suffering from different diseases. The age of people between 20-32 are leaving in those areas where there is little employment opportunities. They receive the benefits form government in terms of career allowance, income support.

Social class– Social class is categorised into five stages i.e. class one includes professional, bank managers, doctor. Class second includes managerial persons who are leaving in multidisciplinary community and this class of people does notneedany support from government (Chen, Yang and Liu, 2010). Third class include skilled non-manual, these class of people are supported by government because there are many man and women who lives in those area where there is a little employment opportunities. Fourth class includes skilled manual people who are already supported by government in terms ofeducation, income. Lastly, fifth class includes skilled and semi-skilled people who are mainly supported by government because they are health concerned with the organisation.

Relationship breakdown– The people who are leaving in multidisciplinary community they need morecare because there are many people suffering from numerousdiseases like dementia and other people alsowho are suffering from depression.

Social constructs– it includes families and households, community, education, work, unemployment.

Education– The government of UK has to provide the education to those people who are not capable of learning through themselves (Conrad and Barker, 2010). The education should be related with theirhealth and social care because in modern era, it become important to provide the education facilities. Through this they came to know about how diseases are affecting on their health.

Families and households– There are many families who lives in health and social care organisation and for them it is necessary to provide better education, work to improve their life styles also. Most of the families are depend upon this sector.

1.2 Current trends in society of UK

The current trend in society of UK are changing from time to time. One of the important trend is demography trends (Currie and Lockett, 2011). It study the growth, structure and movement of human populations. The health and social care organisation are mainly focus on the enumeration which considered the stock of population at a particular point of time. This also flows from vital events such as births, marriage, deaths or any migratory movements.

In economic factors it includes wealth and technological development. There are many aspects of our life which dedicate that how much money is available with us. Globally there are distinct spatial patterns which are used in terms of technology and provides the high-tech solution to multidisciplinary community who are providing services to elderly and patientswho are suffering from diseases.

As demographic includes the population profiles, national, regional factors.

Population profiles– It includes size, gender, age and geographic distribution of UK population and these factors are driving the changes in UK economy (Evans, 2011). The government of UK are planning insomethingfor allocation of resources in best manner and to manage the economy. At national level there are many people who suffered from different diseases and they want support from government.

1.3 Cultural values and beliefs influence society

The culture are having system of health beliefs which explain the causes of illness, and what process are involved in these illness. In society there are many people who belong from different cultures and for them there health is very important. The extent of patients which perceives the education on cultural relevance then they can profound effect on their information provided and their willingness to us. In society, the influence of culture has vast effect on their health (Golden and Earp, 2012). It affects the perception of individual health, illness and which can cause diseases to them. The approaches of health promotion that how illness or diseases are experienced and expressed and in that case what kind of help needed by patients. Cultural values mainly influence to society in following manner.

Related to diversity– Cultural diversity is the quality of different cultures. In this different culture people arerespecting of each other differences. In multidisciplinary there are many people who belongs from different cultures and they have to respect each other.

Distribution of income and wealth– In society there are many people whose income are different from each other. The government has to distribute equal incomebut not on the basis on their religion, caste.

Religious beliefs– At anywhere it can be found that there are many people who beliefs there religion at work placealso(Griffiths and et. al., 2012). It become important for them also in which society in whichthey are leaving and have to respect othersreligion also.

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1.4 Evaluating the implication of changes in society on health and social care sector

The impact of changes in society due to the range of social care which includes the following things.

Involvement– It involves the changes in services users and carers in aspect of service planning, redesign and improvement in providing the quality of services to clients. Through this the people are gettingmore benefited, develop new skills and they improvingtheir quality of life. The little change in societycanimpact on the health and social care organisation and the service provider hasto provide services according to them only.

Dignity and respect– In health and social care organisation the skills, confidence and capability of people give respect to their clients who are suffering from diseases. It will be benefited to people because they are treated as dignity and respect (Gulliford and Morgan, 2013). All the doctors, nurse have to treat with their patients properly so it can not affect on their cultural values also.

Accessible information– In health and social care organisation such as in Wellington hospital the doctor, nurse has to be up to date with the information which are used in their filed. With the help of this it will increase their skills and knowledge. On other side itincrease the brand awareness so that people be attracted towards it.

Partnership working– The working in partnership will provide the changes in society and it will provide the best quality of services to clients. If Wellington hospital is working with the partnership and providing the quality of services then it may affect to their health.But it will be benefited to people in terms of receiving the different treatments solution from one place.

Task 2

2.1 Inequalities exit in health and social care

The distribution of health is determined by the variety of individuals, national factors and community. In modern era, the social class inequalities are still exit, howeverthey are appearing from many of years. Social class inequalities in UK are present at every stage and form the major diseases (Kleinman, 2010). There are four major models which explain the social class inequalities in health and social care sector. These are explained as below.

Behavioural model– In social class there aredifference the people who are damaging their health or promoting the behaviours in terms of consumptions of drugs, alcohols etc. The health social behaviour explains the one-third of social class difference in their morality.

Materialistic model– As poverty expose to people in health hazards. The people are suffering from the disadvantages who are leavingin such areas and harm by the air-pollution and damp housing. According to Black Report Artefact, Social selection, Behaviour and material circumstances are affecting thesocial inequalities.

Psycho-social model– Social inequality may affect those people who feelbad which will turn intoaffect body chemistry. This factor includes the control and autonomy at work, social support and the balance between efforts and rewards (Reeves and et. al., 2011). The balance between work and reward are tends to link with the high blood pressure or form many diseases.

Life-course model- The chances of good or poor health are influenced by that what has happened to child in early stage. This course was developed recently and studied investigation which requires the detailed longitudinal data of male and female.

According to the Acheson report the evaluating all the policies are affectingto their health in terms of impact of inequalities. They have to give priority to their families with children. In last government has to take stepstoreduce the income inequalities and will improve the conditions of poor households.

From the below diagram, the men has high morality from the cause of death and more women suffer from the somatic complains such as headache, muscular pain, tiredness.

2.2 Analyse social inequalities from a social perspective

A sociology perspective is concerning with the nature of social which does not really exist. In society it is significant to treat with the people with equalities. Sociology theory exist between those sociologists who argues that society can be studied in an objective way with identifying thestructure of society. On other side, interpretative or subjective approach are focused on the social actors (Reeves, Macmillan and Van Soeren, 2010). There are three approaches which are explored as below.

Social structure approach which includes societies ofobjectives realities, the functionalistic perspective of health and illness, the Marxist perspective of health and illness. In Marxist perceptive of health and illness is that material production which is most fundamental of human activities. The human necessities are food, cloth and shelter. Production of any type which has been recognised by Marx are also involve social relations.

Interpretative approach, this approach help the health and social care organisation in attempting their goals. In terms of health and illness this approach is focus on the what is the meaning of ill in our society. From this approach two distinct perspectives are stand out i.e. symbolic interactionism and social construction ism.

Societies as a synthesis of agency and structure, it concerned with the attempting to overcome with the problem of traditional sociological durabilities among the structure and agency (Thistlethwaite, 2012). When the health and social care organisation are providing any treat to patient then they should not treat with them inequalities on the basis of religion, caste, culture.

2.3 Inequalities which exist in health and social care impact on individual’s health status and life chances

The inequalities exist in health and social care sector can impact on the individual health statuswhich is recognized from many centuries. Socio-economic differences in health and social care are large and widespread across the different societies. Inequalities may increase the health problems of people in society. In following terms it impact on the individual health and status.

Educational attainment– It usually assessed by the standard question which has been asked from number of years. The quality of education is also relevant to health but on other side it become more difficult to assess it accurately. If the individual has obtained the good education then he/she may be know about that what are the diseases which can harm to people andwhat kind of actions can be taken by them. They should not discriminate people on the basis of religion, caste, colour etc.

Income– It is complex measurement assessment more than the educational attainment. It specify with following components such astime frame, sources, unit of measurement. In Wellington hospital the manager has to distribute the income on the basis of their skills, experiences but not on the basis of cultural, religion (Umberson and Karas Montez, 2010). If the income of the employees is good then it will also improve their life styles. The health and social care organisation should provide job opportunities to people so that it will maintain the status of employees in society also.

Employment opportunities– Wellington hospital has toprovide the job opportunities to people who are leaving in rural areas. By doing thisthey can improve their life styles and ultimately it will also improve their health.It will also increase their knowledge. These kinds ofopportunities should not only provided to urban people because for them already a lots of opportunities are already available.If this is done so then this will impact on their health on rural peopleand can cause may diseases to them.

2.4 Data to explain to how social and health issues are social constructed

The above data which has been used to analyse the health and social issues to construct in society it help Wellington hospital to use proper data. This organisation has to study the political, economic and social factors which will help them to properly provide the quality of services to customers. In society, most of the disease are faced by the women less than the men. There are many children who are below the age of 20 and suffering from danger diseases (Umberson, Crosnoe and Reczek, 2010). According to report of World health organisation, they are providing many treatments to illness people to overcome with their problems. WHO has construct the social issues with the help of understanding the economic, political, social factors and demographic factors.It is important for the person to keep their health good. If it is not shared equally then they have to understand many factors which are contributing any differences in health issues. Social and economic factors include the distribution of income, occupation etc. which have direct impact on the health of people. The socio-economic factors are strongly interact with the our health. For example, if the income of any person is low then often the lack of resources, safe walking paths, working conditions may give negative impact on the people health. The structure of society also influence the health of people. They have to use proper resources in providing the quality of services.

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Task 3

3.1 Sociological concepts and theory to definitions of health and well-being

Health consists of well-being, physical, mental and emotional. It emphasis on the importance of health diseases which depend upon the healthy environment. Sociology assumes that the working of society will depend upon the healthy people who can control their illness. There are many health problems which are faced by the individual in society. If a person is suffering from the illness then they have toidentify the four components in sick role is that the sick person is not responsible for being a sick, they are also not responsible to perform their normal duties, help should be get form others.

The theory of health and well-being in sociology are described as below.

Biomedical– The health constitutes freedom from diseases like pain or anything. The biomedical model of health has mainly focus on biological factors and excludes the social, psychological or environmental factors (White, Haas and Williams, 2012). There are many people who are taking drugs or abuse and these are has been proved asbroken society. These models are trying to focus on the physical process so that they can identify those people who are taking drugs or alcohol.

Clinical iceberg model– This model is used to define the large amount of illness which are affected to people. For an example, when Wellington hospital has to make statistical information these the information are collected from the doctors, nurse. These are also made with the help of government health care. From an year ago, there are many people are reported to doctorsthat they are suffering from illness. Clinical iceberg considered the number of diseases or illness in which doctor believes that these people are not reporting to doctors.

3.2 Implication of social and health issues for health and social care service providers

There are many people who are suffering from many diseases and care service provider has to provide them a best quality of services. The implication of health and social care issue give negative impact on the health of poor people (Williams and Sternthal, 2010). In society there are numerous people who are facing the problems regarding the health issues and they should be supported by social care services. Wellington hospital has implement the self-directed support in health and social care in the following places.

Support planning – This provides help to those people who develop their own plans to achieve the desired set of outcomes. The arrangement is done in such a way to provide the best quality of services to patients and to meet out with the budget cost. The singing of these plans are ensuring the eligible needs which are met by the health issues people to manage their own risk.

Self-directed assessment – It simplified that the care service provider has to work in partnership to provide the quality of services to customers (Zambrana and Carter-Pokras, 2010). It will give only benefit to Wellington hospital to maintain their position in competitive market. With the help of this the service provider will provide proper treatment to patients in high quality.

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3.3 Analyse social and health issues in terms to impact on the health and well-being of individuals in society

The social and health issues are impact on the individual who are leaving in society. They just want that the service provider should provide a quality of servicesto them. In order to maintain their status it is important that they should receive a good quality of services (Sociological Perspective on Health,2016). As there are many people who are suffering from many diseases such as drugs, alcohol, family breakdown, loss of traditional values etc. Wellington hospital has not to discriminate people on the basis of their cultural, caste, religion they should have to provide equal services to patients through which they can also maintain their status in society. If they discriminate any people then it will impact on their health. It is responsibility of service provider that not to discriminate the patients on the basis of different caste and religions. They have to provide them equal treatments so that patients will remain happy. The individual who leaves in society also does not discriminate the people if they are suffering from any illness or diseases. They have to support them in terms of providing the quality of services. Through this it will also not impact on their status.


After summing up the it has been concluded that sociology affect in the health and social care organisation. Wellington hospital does not discriminate any people and they have to properly understand the political, social and economic factors so that they can provide the quality of services to different people. The black report and Acheson report has describes the difference between the male and female in various countries and the organisation does not discriminate the people on their basis.

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Books and Journals

  • Abraham, J., (2010). Pharmaceuticalization of society in context: theoretical, empirical and health dimensions. Sociology.44(4). pp.603-622.
  • Best, A., and et. al., (2012). Largesystem transformation in health care: a realist review. Milbank Quarterly. 90(3). pp.421-456.
  • Chen, F., Yang, Y. and Liu, G., (2010). Social change and socioeconomic disparities in health over the life course in China a cohort analysis. American sociological review. 75(1). pp.126-150.
  • Conrad, P. and Barker, K. K., (2010). The social construction of illness key insights and policy implications. Journal of health and social behavior. 51(1 suppl). pp.S67-S79.
  • Currie, G. and Lockett, A., (2011). Distributing leadership in health and social care: concertive, conjoint or collective?. International Journal of Management Reviews. 13(3). pp.286-300.
  • Evans, D., (2011). Blaming the consumer–once again: the social and material contexts of everyday food waste practices in some English households. Critical Public Health. 21(4). pp.429-440.
  • Golden, S. D. and Earp, J. A. L., (2012). Social ecological approaches to individuals and their contexts twenty years of health education & behavior health promotion interventions. Health Education & Behavior. 39(3). pp.364-372.
  • Griffiths, F., and et. al., (2012). Social networks–the future for health care delivery. Social science & medicine. 75(12). pp.2233-2241.
  • Gulliford, M. and Morgan, M. eds., (2013). Access to health care. Routledge.
  • Kleinman, A., 2010. Four social theories for global health. The Lancet. 375(9725). pp.1518-1519.
  • Reeves, S. and et. al., (2011). Interprofessional teamwork for health and social care (Vol. 8). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Reeves, S., Macmillan, K. and Van Soeren, M., (2010). Leadership of interprofessional health and social care teams: a sociohistorical analysis. Journal of nursing management. 18(3). pp.258-264
  • Thistlethwaite, J., (2012). Interprofessional education: a review of context, learning and the research agenda. Medical education.46(1). pp.58-70.
  • Umberson, D. and Karas Montez, J., (2010). Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of health and social behavior. 51(1_suppl). pp.S54-S66.
  • Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R. and Reczek, C., (2010). Social relationships and health behavior across the life course. Annual review of sociology.36. pp.139-157.
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