Intimate Partner Violence

Introduction to Intimate Partner Violence

Intimate partner violence can be defined as a term which is collective which describes the domestic abuses, stalking, ans sexual assault. This term is used to reflect the intimate nature either of the abuse or of the offender relationship. In this research essay topic which is chosen is the sexual assault, it includes rape or assault through penetration which may include attempts , unwanted touching or indecent exposure which is carried out by any of the person. This theory will help to explain the cause and the theories of crime.

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1) Type of offence and its research

Sexual assault can be defined as the type of sexual act in which a particular person is pressurized and is physically forced to get engage against their will, or it can also be said that it is a non consent sexual touching by a person to another person. The definition of the sexual assault get varies among the states of individual (Cronholm and, 2011). The abuse, incest network, rape defines this as the sexual contact which is unwanted that stops short of attempted rape or rape. It may include fondling or sexual touching . It has several types like child sexual abuse, domestic violence, groping, elderly sexual assault, sexual harassment, rape and mass sexual assault. This topic need to be taken into consideration as it is very serious thing in today's world. Crimes are increasing day by day which are hindering people and creating fear among them. Sexual assault is sometimes called as stranger rape and which can occur in the types of contact sexual assault, blitz sexual assault and home invasion sexual assault.

2) Ideas and theories regarding the occurrence of crime

Sexual assault may take different types of forms but the one thing is same that there is never the victim's fault. It refers to the behaviour or sexual contact which occurs without the consent of the victim. Rape is a kind of sexual assault which includes sexual penetration without the consent. It includes the term perpetrators which means the person who is known to the victim. In a blitz sexual assault , perpetrators assault victim brutally usually in public place at night (Intimate personal violence and partner abuse, 2016). Contact sexual assault is when the trust is gained by the perpetrator on victim by luring, flirting and put them into such situation where the sexual assault can occur. In home invasion sexual assault the, stranger enters the victim home to commit assault. Theories are the essential tool that helps to understand the way in which the system of criminal justice works and who are the actors in the system.

There are several criminology theory biological theory of crime which explains the behaviour which is contrary to the expectations of the society by examining the individual characteristics. Strain theories which involve the inability to achieve goals, presentation of negative thing and loss of positive thing. Self control theory which defines the different models of the self control like indirect control, informal social control and power control. Psychological theories of crime which is on the notion that a person's early experiences like in childhood, influence the person for committing crimes. There are 57% serious assaults on women since the age 16 and offender was ex partner or partner, in contrast in the less serious assaults, the offender in at least one situation was 24.6% (Zolotor, Denham and Weil, 2009).

3) Best theory for the occurrence of offence

The best theory which is chosen according to the crime related to sexual assault is the strain theory. Strain theories involves the various strains and stress that increase the chances of crime. This may includes when there is loss of the positivity e.g. the death of the close one, loss of valuable, when a person is not able to achieve goals like status or monetary goal and when there is negativity like physical and verbal abuse. A person who experience such kinds of strains becomes sad or upset and in return creates a crime, they think that it is a way to escape from strains, and due to this individuals assault their intimate partner or or peers who keeps on harassing them. This theory best explains the occurrence of sexual assault by a person.

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4) Link between the theory and offence

The offence which is chosen for the research is the sexual assault, and the theory which best describes it is the strain theory. Strains are there which increase the occurrence of crime for different reasons. Mostly it leads to the negative emotions which includes the anger, fear, depression and frustration. Due to such emotions the pressure for corrective actions means the strained individuals may feel bad and wants to commit something, and the crime is one of the possible response. Strains lead to the negativity and this eventually turns in to crime. Due to such strains people commit the sexual assault on their partners. According to the few studies it suggest that the emotions like fear and frustration explains the strains effect on crime.

5) Comparison of the chosen theory with other theories of crime

Strain theory which is being chosen for the sexual assault is the best theory as it explains that because of several strains which may include depression, frustration etc. people tends to commit crime like sexual assault on their partners. Other theories like psychological theory which consists of psychology of the person to commit crime and it does not explains the true reason to commit sexual assault. Biological theory in which the behaviour of the person is contrary to the society also not explains the true reason for the crime. Other theories like self control which explains different control, routine activities theory, cultural transmission theory does explains the string reason to commit the sexual assault on the intimate partner.


From the above research it can be concluded that the chosen topic which is sexual assault is caused because of the strain theory of the crime. One potential policy which will help to reduce this crime may be the program of 'Safe Dates', which is basically designed to block physical, emotional and sexual abuse in the dating relationships. The main goals of the programs are, to change the gender role norm and dating violence, to improve dating conflicts resolution and will improve peer helping, will promote belief of victim and perpetrator in seeking help from community resources. This will help in reducing the intimate sexual assault. It is recommended that if there will be clear policy regarding crimes and enforcement of the policy then it will helps to reduce the practices of sexual assault.


  • Capaldi, D.M. and, 2012. A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partner abuse.
  • Cronholm, P.F., and, 2011. Intimate partner violence. American family physician.
  • Finkel, E.J. and Eckhardt, C.I., 2013. Intimate partner violence. The Oxford handbook of close relationships,
  • Hattery, A., 2009. Intimate partner violence. Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Zolotor, A.J., Denham, A.C. and Weil, A., 2009. Intimate partner violence. Primary care: Clinics in office practice.
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