Management & Operations


The management and operations is related with managing each and every task of an organization so that quality can be maintained in work. It is apparent in organizations that a manager and a leader are the persons who use to manage all the works and lead each department in efficient manner (Baboli and et,al., 2014). The present report is based on management and operations according to which the roles and responsibilities of a manager and leader is explained. Besides this, the chosen organization is M&S Ltd. in which the managers and leaders are playing their roles to manage the works. Apart from this, they also monitor the quality of various operations so that they can leverage the quality of work and maintain efficiency. In addition to this, the report will discuss about the factors that have an impact on the operations of business as well.

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P1 Different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager

Manager :The manager is a person who works in a business firm and entrusted with four basic functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Thus, on the basis of above mentioned four functions, the manager is more concerned about fulfilling the objectives of business by managing the employees of the company (Ming and, 2013).

Leader :The leader is a person who does not necessarily hold the position of management. He leads the team of his followers on the basis of his influencing ideas and behaviour. He possesses the qualities due to which he leads the team in an efficient manner.

Basis of difference




The leadership is based on the features and skills of a leader on the basis of which he leads his team (Casolino and, 2012,).

The management is a systematic art of managing people and work in appropriate manner.


The major emphasis by a leader is laid on inspiring people from his ideas and charisma.

The manager exerts his primary emphasis on managing the functions and tasks of the firm.


The leaders are generally seen as a change agent who takes initiatives for bringing various changes in the current systems.

The managers are more focussed towards bringing the stability in the organisation (DeAnna, R. and, 2010).


The leaders make strategies and plans on proactive basis according to which they take advance steps so as to minimise the risks and get success.

The manager generally has the characteristics of reactive strategies according to which they make plans and strategies after occurring of an event to handle it.


The leaders make principles and various guidelines that can help in maintaining discipline among the followers (Nakayama and Bucks, 2012).

The managers formulate the policies and procedures which help as a guiding principle for the employees of organisation.


The leaders are required to have a perspective of foresightedness so that they can formulate plans and strategies in advance.

The managers have a short range perspective and makes plan and strategies for short term goals.


The leaders are responsible for influencing people and followers to make them work for the organisation and achieving goals.

The managers perform four major functions of planning, organising, directing and controlling (Baboli and et,al., 2014).

Thus, above characteristics and roles of a leader and manager will differ in M&S organization. On the basis of above mentioned roles, both will perform different functions and tasks.

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P2 Role of a leader and function of manager in different situations

The managers and leaders play different roles and perform various functions as per the different situations. Ming and, (2013)has stated that in any enterprise, there can be various situations which may be in favour or not. All situations must be handled in a proper way by using skills through manager and a leader. As per this, the manager and a leader can take help of different approaches to handle various situations.

Situational leadership: The situational leadership was developed by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. As per this approach, the leaders make adjustments in their way of leading the followers so that they can induce the desired level of development in the people they want. Besides this, this type of leadership is best suitable as it attempts to give enough opportunity to adopt flexibility in their working style and managing people (Casolino and, 2012). In cited organization, this type of leadership will be helpful in adopting the best possible way to manage work and people as per the situation. For instance, to introduce a change in the firm regarding policies, the leader will have to adjust him and try to think by putting himself in employees’ position so that he can understand the possible issues which can be faced by workers. Thus, further strategies to influence the people so as to make them agree for change should be developed.

Human relations theory: The human relations theory of management is a very suitable theory that can be applied in workplace (DeAnna and, 2010). This theory is based on a belief that each worker in a company want to become a part of a team which is supportive and provides the opportunities for growth and development. Thus, a manager of enterprise need to pay attention to the desires of his staff and team so that they can be motivated in a proper way which will result in getting more productivity from them. Thus, in stated venture, manager must take care of employees’ needs and wants so that they can be motivated for achieving desired goals of organization as well as can be provided with opportunities for growth and development at workplace (Nakayama and Bucks, 2012).

As per the above discussion, it is evident that both manager and leader have different ways and principles of working. Further, it is necessary for both of them to keep their team managed and motivated. This will need to apply the style and approaches as per the situations so that overall objectives of organization and personal growth can be achieved.

P3 Theories of Leadership

For leaders to be efficient and effective at the workplace different mechanisms or several situational leadership theories have been discussed by various experts and scientists which are mentioned below:

Situational Leadership:A situation leadership theory states a particular situation which is experienced by the leader and manager. Under this theory leaders and mangers have to understand the situation and circumstances and then make strategies to overcome the situations they are facing with. In short they have to make their way as per the situation demands(Schiller and, 2016). Here, the Leader needs to be active and quick in decision making because he deals with every situations differently.

Systematic Leadership:Systematic leadership is that trait of theory of leadership that most of the leaders follow and which is mostly recognized as well because in this theory leaders follow a systematic pattern to deal with every kind of conditions whether it is negative or positive. They follow certain set of patterns or steps which is made them only to deal with the situation. Following a particular process may lead to sometimes deviations because every time the problem is of different nature.

Contingency Leadership:Herein, Contingency as name suggest that there may be the situations in the working environment that sometimes leaders get too know the things which will be face by them in the future by some application of forecasting methods, thus to deal with those situations and circumstances this type of leaderships have been formulated so that the contingent problems can be dealt with(Murray and, 2016). For contingent situations it is uncertain that they will happen or not, but then also a leader or a manager have to be prepared for any situation to face.

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P4 Key approaches to Leadership Management

Leadership cannot be inculcated in someone, rather it is more off like the attitude of individual. There are many approaches a leader can follow to lead the company. Some of those key approaches are:

Traits Approach:There is a famous saying in relation to Leaders that "they are born, Not made". Therefore, Leadership is not teached to anyone rather it is an individual's personality, attitude towards a given situation. How a normal individual sees a given situation and how a leader views it makes the difference.

Functional Approach:This particular approach is also known as group approach, in this a leadership can be learned and developed. This approach focuses on accountabilities, responsibilities and functions of the leader and the nature of the group. this approach is all about how leader can affect the behaviour of individual and how he/she is affected by them(Murray and, 2016).

Behavioral Approach:This particular approach of leadership deals with behaviour of people who are in the leadership positions and focus is laid on the importance of leadership style and how it influences group performance of the individuals. A leader possess of different set of behavioral traits which makes him distinct from other leaders.

Action-Centered Approach:This trait of leadership deals with the leaders who are more action-oriented and take immediate actions on happening and non-happenings of an event. Herein, leaders are more focused on doing the things right rather than just directing it and conveying to the subordinate. Here leader takes the charge from front(Kopardekar, 2015).

P5 Importance of Operations Management in achieving Objectives

Every organization is established with one aim in their mind and that is achieving the set goals and objectives at regular intervals which draws them towards achieving the vision of the enterprise. abc also have the same desire of achieving the objectives and for that important element in the company is to have your operations on the right track. Keeping operational efficiency on the right track will help abc to achieve their set objectives. So, achieving objectives clearly goes on with the operations management.

Operations management has always been the key in maintaining the activities at broader level as well as at the shorter level. If operations of abc will be maintained up to date and continuation of technology development is done regularly than it will be helpful in making the desires to be successful. If operations of the business are performed in an effective and efficient manner it will make a positive impact on the working of the company. Thus Leaders and managers are important in maintaining the operations of business in keeping up to date certain activities which have major impact on the profitability of the company. Operations of the business includes manufacturing activities , production activities , sales, marketing, human resource, finance, decision making capabilities, etc(Kopardekar, 2015). Thus, all these activities have to be performed in effective manner in order to make sure that the working should be done as per the standards made.

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M3 Evaluation of Efficiencies for Improving the Role

There are many options that can lead to efficiencies in the role of Leaders and managers in operations management as it focuses on aligning operations with the company's objectives and helping the business go where it wants to go. Some roles which will help in improving efficiencies are:

  • Governing Mechanism:The role of leaders and managers have been very dynamic and if they want to improve their role and to be efficient enough to carry out the operations they need to follow governing mechanism which involves centralized governing mechanism for a company translates its role in business operation. operations management defines, designs and implements inter-office communications.
  • Inventory control:A good leader and manager should efficient in inventory control because inventory of the manufacturing company is the key to business for them. it is somewhat an assets for the company(Ba and Nault, 2016). Inventory is one of the difficult systems in the country. It can determine what you have, what you want, when you will be in need of it and how you will gain what you need. a company's inventory control is the important element in the organization thus managers and leaders can improve efficiency by maintaining he required balance of inventory in the organization.
  • Quality Control:Quality control is also an another part or element which can improve the efficiency of the role of leader and manager by looking continuously on the quality check of the products that are being produced. It is nothing but more than simply having a good and dependable product that pleases customers. It is larger than your brand meets expectations. Taking care of the organization, it critically enables smoother workflow and fewer distractions(Ba and Nault, 2016).
  • Supply Chain Management:Taking a look at company's supply chain is an important element in the efficiency improvement of the leader and managers as supply chain of any company includes how well the distribution is done in order to make the customers access the product conveniently.

D2 Critical Evaluation on Factors Affecting External Environment

There are different factors which affect the environment as whole which in turn affects he business environment as well, So there comes the role of leaders and managers in making the strategies which can reduce the impact of these factors on the working of the organization. The factors are:

  • Economic Factors:Economic factor is one of the important factors because it has its roots directly with the economy of the country which in turn affects negatively and positively in both the ways to an organization(Rushton, Croucher and Baker, 2014).abc leaders and managers should consider the GDP rate going on and should be looking at the inflation rate changes that are taking place n order to make strategies which favors the company.
  • Social Factors:Consumers are an important asset of the company and thus Leaders and managers need to ensure that they produce the products which caters the need of people at the supreme level through which abc can make profits and also a brand image for the future as well.
  • Political Factors:Changes in government affects the change of strategies in business as well. abc company should ensure that any change in the restrictions and limitations or policies of the government should be undertaken with due care by leaders and mangers in order to promote smooth working at the workplace, keeping calm is the key.
  • Technological Factors:In order to have a competitive advantage over the competitors abc should adopt latest technologies to carry out their operations because using an old set of machines will not provide them much which the new one's can(Rushton, Croucher and Baker, 2014).This will improve their speed and reduce half of the effort they made in past, it is cost effective too.

P6 Factors Affecting Business Environment

There are six different factors which affect the business environment in several ways, which are:

Political Factors:Government bodies make different rules and regulations which restricts business organizations to perform their operations within the boundaries of those rules, in turn they sometimes end on performing low productivity levels than desired. So appropriate strategies need to be carried out by the leaders and managers in order to maintain the level operations well.

Social Factors:Sometimes its consumers taste and preferences that are no met by the company. So, abc company managers and leaders should ensure that the products they are delivering in the market should fulfill the desire of the target market(Ba and Nault, 2016).

Technological Factors:Managers and leaders of abc should ensure optimum use of the resources by introducing new technologies at the workplace. Using older ones will not make them grow in the market and also will reduce their productions up to an extent.

Legal Factors:Legal factors are related to the rules and regulations that companies have to comply with in making of the products and delivering of the services. abc leaders and mangers should ensure the proper standards are followed in making of products.

Environmental Factors:Environmental factors affects a business by natural causes like disasters, earthquakes, tornados, etc. These factors are uncertain and can hit at anytime, abc company should consider these and accordingly strategies the operations(Ba and Nault, 2016).

Economic Factors:When the economy of the country changes it changes the perceptions of the consumer or people living in that country which in turn impacts the buying behaviour of people and thus eventually the demand of the products is affected by that.


From this report it can be concluded that, Leaders and managers have been the key in maintain and framing the operations of the business. There role in an organization is of utmost important for the survival and existence off the organization. A leader is a person who makes the decision and performing that decision effectively is the key towards achieving the targets and that performance and ensuring that it is up to the standards is done by managers. Further in this report it has been founded that there are several factors which affects the working of the organization which are: Economic, political, legal, environmental, social and technological factors.


Books & Journals

  • Baboli, P.T. and et,al., 2014. Energy management and operation modelling of hybrid AC–DC microgrid.IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution.8(10). pp.1700-1711.
  • DeAnna, R. and, 2010.System for development, management and operation of distributed clients and servers. U.S. Patent 7,730,111..
  • Ming, Z. and, 2013. Historical review of demand side management in China: Management content, operation mode, results assessment and relative incentives.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.25. pp.470-482.
  • Nakayama, F.S. and Bucks, D.A. eds., 2012.Trickle irrigation for crop production: design, operation and management(Vol. 9). Elsevier.
  • Schiller, A. and, 2016. Better Informed Marine Operations and Management: Multidisciplinary Efforts in Ocean Forecasting Research for Socioeconomic Benefit.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.97(9). pp.1553-1559.
  • Murray, C. F. and, 2016. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.animal.10(03). pp.468-477.
  • Kopardekar, P., 2015. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations: Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM).
  • Ba, S. and Nault, B. R., 2016. Emergent Themes in the Interface Between Economics of Information Systems and Management of Technology.Production and Operations Management.
  • Rushton, A., Croucher, P. and Baker, P., 2014.The handbook of logistics and distribution management: Understanding the supply chain. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Casolino, G.M. and, 2012, September. Smart modeling and tools for distribution system management and operation. InEnergy Conference and Exhibition (ENERGYCON), 2012 IEEE International(pp. 635-640). IEEE.
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