Management Operations


The entire report will explain about the functions of the manager and what roles a leader plays into the organization. The report will describe various theories and traits about how the manager could be effective. Also it will provide a clear understanding about the concept of both managers and leaders and how they work for the organisation. It will help you to know different types of theory and their operations. It will provide a clear learning about which theory is the best and most practical to adopt into your organisation. The report will provide the complete knowledge and skill regarding the management and its operations.

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(A) Role of a leader and manager

There are various roles which a leader plays in an origination to enhance the effectiveness of his team as well as into the organisation. Some of the important roles of the leader are mentioned below to make more clear understanding o the same.

  • Visioning and setting example – This is one of the important roles played by the leader into the organisation where the leader is required to articulate the vision, develop corporate vision. As he is the first person to visualize the vision so that he can lead his team. Under this the leaders see the change as the opportunity and do not run through or fear it. Moreover, he becomes the great example to lead his team members and tries to see the change into the organisation.
  • Empower and energize people - This is another role played by him where he is suppose to carry the positive attitude and pass on the same to his members. To motivate the people and mobilize them for the single or common goal. Under this the entire concern of the leader is to bring the inner potential of the person out and let him work with the best possible way he can do for the organisation as well as for the team.

Characteristics of a good leader

  • They pursue the most positive attitude in the organisation
  • He is the one who knows how to deal with problems and set them back
  • They take the complete responsibility and accountability for the same.
  • They not only develop themselves but also develop those who are around them.
  • They are good at delegating the work and powers.

Functions of a manager

  • Planning- The first and the foremost function of the manager is to plan each and everything he wants to achieve. He must plan his objectives and goal here he wants o reach. Without planning none of the actions can take place.
  • Organisation - The second function of the manager is to organise each and every activity which he planned in the above stage and assign them in the systematic manner.
  • Directing - Under this the manager give directions and guidelines to the people who has been assigned with the work and also help them in doing and understanding it.
  • Controlling - The fourth function of the manager is to keep watch over the activities which are taking place into the organisation. And keep complete eye over them.
  • Coordinating - The last function of the manager is to coordinate between all the activities together and take the team together as a group and not as an individual.

(B) How role of a leader and functions of manager are applied

Role of a leader plays a very important role in a organisation if we talk about Tesco the consider the leaders as the most despotic persons of their company. For an instance if the team is not providing the better result to the organisation even after investing maximum number of output then the Tesco can check upon the leader , on his working and how a leader is presenting himself to his group because if a leader is not participative of lacking in any of a quality like bad at communication, energizing the people in his team or not effective at visioning the future or the objective then the team might also suffer even after putting lot of effort as every team and the members of the team needs motivation and inspiration from his leader to achieve the common end. So basically if the working isn’t fine into the group in the organisation like Tesco then they could definitely work upon their leader.

In such situation a good leader will enhance the communication of his team, will motivate them to show their inner potential and also he will make sure to keep his team bind together. And that’s how the roles of the leader could be applied in the particular situation in the organisation such as Tesco. essay writing services

Whereas the role of the manager is something that comes above all the level and work. The leader can only guide, give directions or motivate the employees or hi team member but if we talk about the manager he is someone who is above the leader if we talk in the quantitative or qualitative work. As manager makes the first and the initial plan for the organisation and decides the goal which the organisation needs to achieve collectively whereas leader is the one who follow ups the same plans and then works upon it. For an instance if we take the example of the organisation Tesco, in case there comes a situation where the employees do not get how the work actually needs to be performed which has already been planned and organised by the manager then he can anytime discuss the same with the concern manager who was or who is responsible for the planning, organising, directing, controlling and co-ordinating.

(C) Theories and models of leadership

  • Contingency theory of leadership - Such of leadership could be applied in the organisation like Tesco when all the theories and leading style fails then this theory could be applied which says that this theory is entirely based on the prevailing situation when the leader does not work according to any such propound techniques but when the leaders use and applies their own thoughts and vision for dealing with that particular situation. So ever such situations come in Tesco when none of the theory works the leaders may apply the contingency theory for solving the situations.
  • Systems leadership - If we talk about this type of leaders in the contrast of Tesco this type of leadership is said to be adopted when the leaders are suppose to cross the boundaries or when they the organisation is expecting to extend leaders beyond the usual limits of their responsibilities and authorities. So if the employees are lead with such leadership they could be transferred or rotate anytime in the top because with the help of systems leadership they will learn the understanding of the areas which are beyond the boundary. For an instance if there is any kind of emergency in the organisation for the employee then they could place any other employee who has been leaded with the systems leadership.
  • Situational leadership - Such type of leadership style could be adopted in Tesco when they want their employees to make connect with two or more activities or combining two or more than two activities and behaviour together. Where the major focus is upon combining supportive behaviour with directive behaviour.

Hence, these are some of the leadership which could be applied in the above mentioned situations in the Tesco. Being aware of this leadership and applying them into the Tesco will help Tesco to rise high and achieve the desired targets of the organisation.

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(D) Difference between role of a leader and function of a manager

  • A manager focuses on the process and on the entire procedure and how it is done whereas the leader’s major focus is upon the people as he is the one who leads them.
  • The leader is the one who envisions the things and objectives about the future as well about the present scenario whereas the manger is the one who administrate the functions and duties.
  • The major function of the manager is to maintain the work which has been assigned by him whereas the leader is the one whose major concern is to develop the people on the whole and enhance their personality.
  • Manager is the one who measures the projection which has been commenced whereas leader is the one who measures the project which he has lead to his team.
  • The manager ensures that the tings have been are right whereas the leader focuses upon the things should be done rightly.
  • The manager see to it that the rules which are made should be implemented and only those must be followed where the leader brings the innovation and creativity in his way of leading as well as doing the work.
  • The manager is the one who asks for detail all the time and seek information from his employees about the work done where the leader just go for the possibility he just take the assumption and does it with a probability of may be success or failure.
  • The function of the manager is to focus upon the corporate policies, processes and the procedures and not beyond that and follow up all the rules whereas s the leader magnifies the individual person, their capabilities and their individual purpose and judges them on their individual personality.
  • A manager deals with what is probable where the leader deals in what is possible.
  • Managers are the rule makers, design makers, implement rules , organizes all the details and they ensure the compliance whereas the leader is the one who believes in visioning, define purposes, who brings creativity and innovation into the organisation.

(E) Strength and weaknesses of different approaches

Contingency approach


  • It is the most survived and most valid and reliable approach.
  • It is grounded and the most empirical.
  • The contingency approach has broadened the scope of leadership from single aspect to vast aspect.
  • It helps in providing the predicted powers about which leadership would be best to adopt.


  • Sometimes the contingency approach becomes inadequate.
  • It is a complex phenomenon as very new way is to be finding out for various situations.
  • Difficult empirical testing sometimes.
  • It is reactive and proactive most of the time.

Situational approach


  • This situation is very popular and is frequently used for training leaders into the organisation.
  • This is very practical and empirical approach which is applied and easily understandable and applies at almost across a variety of setting.
  • It helps in guiding how leaders should act and achieve the effectiveness of the leadership.


  • There are only few research being conducted to justify this approach and only few questions is been raised about this situation theory.
  • The authors are still confused that how the various levels are being combined with each other and the authors are still unclear about this subject.
  • It is very hard to define how commitment is conceptualize in it.
  • It is unclear that how the different levels match with other and how the subordinate’s development level or the prescription models are defined.

As we could see the above mentioned theories and their description which clearly defines that every theory or approaches have both strength and weaknesses which they needs to face and also need to work upon it to become the most effective and more applicable in the practical situation or scenario.

(F) Theories and approaches to leadership

  • Behavioral theory –The behavioural theory of leadership is classified as such because this theory is entirely based upon the behaviour of the leader. As we know that every leader pursue different type of behaviour where this theory studies about the individual behaviour that might be dependent upon how a leader reacts on a particular situation and how he will behave under certain situation this define as the behaviour of the leader. Apart from the styles of leadership the theories also plays a vital role in shaping the future of the employees into the organisation.This type of theory might include the positive behaviour, aggressive behaviour, polite behaviour or negative behaviour of handling the various situations as well as the team members a leader is leading.
  • Great man theory – Are some people born to lead? This theory is entirely based on the great leaders like Gandhi Ji, Julius Caesar , napoleon, queen Elizabeth I, and Abraham Lincoln we will find that these all will seem different from rest of the troupe. As they carried a high level of dedication and spirit of leading the people and it was all voluntary efforts which were made by them. These people were not trained as a leader but they were born for the same. They had a different zeal into them which made them such great personality and an inspiration from each and every person today. This theory possess that some of the leaders are born and they aren’t made, they are self guided and understandable. They make a difference and carry something in their mind which is not present in the usual people’s mind. Not only they but some of the Sportsperson, Top executives and even politicians sets an aura which sets them apart from rest of the troupe. Such type of theory of leadership is explained as the great man theory.
  • Contingency theory of leadership – It is an organisation theory which claims that there is no best way to organise the organisation but a good leader is that only who works according to the present situation. The one who takes the right decisions considering the present situation as well as the past experience for the same and applies his own style and way to lead the people and enhances his leadership. This theory claims that every technique fails if the leader does not consider the situations. for instance if there comes any such situation which has never happened into the organisation then the leader needs to create his own decision for solving the problem in his style in the best possible way he could do.


(A) Approaches to operation management and role of manager and leader

  • System approach – The system approach is a wider scope which not only focuses upon the internal factors of the organisation but also considers the external environment factor as the crucial part of the organisation like Tesco. The approach claims that one shouldn’t be only concise to the domestic level but should expand globally to understand the market scenario and other competitive element of the environment. Here by external factor it means the stake holders the external parties or we could say the third party which is involved in trade with us must also be considered by meeting up to their expectations as being the stake holder of Tesco, they will expect to get the maximum returns and profit so keeping their desires as the priority is explained into the system approach. (Clerkin and Ruderman , 2016)
  • Total quality management: It has been noticed that by having an application of total quality management the business firm can easily advance the work effectiveness. Overall standards in respect to the operation management can be advanced in order to lead Tesco towards impressive level of success. Use of six sigma method and further valuation is also need to be referred so that goals and objectives can be accomplished.
  • Kaizen Approach: It is referred as process that allows to attain long term development. With an assistance of this businesses can have continuous development in regard to have systematic work approach. Along with this, Tesco can also have accomplishment of change management through effective application of standards under Kaizen approach. It also advances the efficiency and quality of work. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. 

Role of a leader

A leader plays various roles into the organisation as leader is one of the despotic essences of the smooth working of the organisation. Some of the roles of the leader are explained below.

  • Knowledge sharing- It is one of the important role which must be played by the leader where he is responsible and must be liable to gain knowledge from various sources and gather information and pass on the same to his team to make them aware of each and every thing which is going into the organisation. The leader is the one who is expected to share his knowledge and skills with his entire team as much as he can. (Cox,2010)
  • Communication- Secondly the leader needs o play the role of a communicator and not only a communicator but he must be an effective communicator who must be liable to share and communicate his views as well the views which he get from other members he must communicates in the team so that no one feels like he is or was unaware of any such important fact.
  • Motivator - This is one of the most important role which every leader is expected to play where his sole duty is to motivate and influence his team and his members to work hard and never feel demotivate by any other person or by any other team into the organisation. Continuous motivation is very much essential for the effective performance of the individual as well as the team.

Role of the manager

  • Figurehead - The first role of the manager as being the head of the organization he is require to sigh the legal documentation or provide the approval for the same.
  • Liaison officer - The another role of the manager is to bring information from everywhere and share it with the employees and the people into the organisation as well as he is also liable to build contacts with the other parties and build the strong relationship with them for the future requirement.

(B) Importance of operation management

The role of operation management is very important in any type of business organisation for making a service or a product to more efficient and effective. Also it might affect the profitability of any kind in the organisation whether it is small or large, public or private, (Esen, 2015) manufacturer or service it can be any kind. Without the operation management no business can hope for the success in to the market as it deals with the product and services. It uses resources approximately to create products that fulfil the market requirement.

The operation management deals with the development of the products and bring creativity into them. The major function of the operation management is to check upon the quality, speed, cost, and flexibility of the product or the services. It is the entire responsibility of the operation management to ensure that the resources are being utilized properly, whether the work is being done in the right time or not. Also that the raw material is being supplied on the time or not. Where the customer management provide the best quality product to the customer to satisfy their market demand. It is entirely concern with each and every detail of the product and services. As in today’s era of business quality of the product pays very important role in enhancing the effectiveness as well as the goodwill of the organisation. (Institute, 2008) So on the whole operation management is very important for the business.

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(C) Factors impact upon operation management

Environment factor is one of the major factor which impact upon the operation management as increase emphasis is going towards reduce waste, recycle and reuse the product parts and tools as the societies and communities have expressed the need of complete control over the waste of the products and resources, waste disposals, global warming which has reach to an extend and other such environment issue are highly expected. Controlling the quality and standard of the products and services one of the major concern of the operation management.

Also the physical location impacts on the operation management as location affects the market and the customers a lot s there are large and small stores both located and the small stores might get affected by the large stores which might be located near to them and the entire public traffic may shift to that large store so planning of the perfect physical location for you business is very important. Then the government policies are the issues which affect the operation management due to the legal rules and regulations implemented by the government. Also the taxes which are enforced by the government on different products and policies. These policies of government somehow affect the working of the operation management. Supply chain is again another factor which affects the operational management as there are improper channel through which the product is been transmitted which affects the quality of the product.

For an instance if we export the batteries of the computer they may catch fire in between which will might result in the big loss of the business so the medium or the channel is the important factor which might impact upon the operation management. Schyns,B., and ( Meindl,2005)

(D) How manager and leader can increase the efficiency of the operation management

Manager and leader both play the most important role in enhancing the effectiveness of the operation management as a manager can forecast the requirement of the future resources and the production which might be required to attain the goal of the organisation. Secondly the manager could make the best use of the resources and utilize them in the most effective manner. Also the manager could remove the work in progress inventory, through put time to reduce the production cost which could be very efficient in execution of the plan. He can also reduce the material handling cost, which can be done with the help of efficient material handling technique which will help in providing the most effective production this could also be done through plant layouts which must be developed in the correct way. (C and Shi ,2014)

Leader work is to check upon the entire working going on into the operation research being enforced by the team members, for increasing the effectiveness of the operation market a leader can monitors the working and then make a vision out of it for accomplishing the plan or the objective of the organisation. After that the leader can analysis various techniques or methods which can be applied to avoid the same. And then he can make out the process through which it can be enhanced in the more efficient manner. (Winkler, 2010)

(E)-(F) Factor affect the business environment

There are various factors which affect the business environment like economic factors, political factors, social factors, technological factors and legal factors which affect the business in their own way for an instance the economic factor affect the business by the changes in the gross domestic product of the economy or any changes in the policies and procedures or government intervention into the business all comes into the category of economic factor. Secondly there are political factors that are the changes in the political parties the new policies and schemes which are implemented by the political persons might affect the business very badly and effectively.

Then there comes the technological change under which the changes in the technology and modernization may affect the working of the business and it is never easy to adopt the technology over a night as it a long process. Also then comes the social factor that is the personal income of the person, his family income his status and respect is very important which also affects the business environment. So these were the major five factors which affect the working o the business very badly and drastically changes could be seen.

In addition to this, it can be stated that by having an improved focus on CSR activities the business firm can have continuous development. It has been noticed that if businesses is not considering values of CSR then it will impact the overall outcome in negative manner. It might be possible that strict actions can be taken into account against company if CSR norms are not fulfilled in desired manner. Along with this, business ethic is also a crucial factor which might affect the overall outcome. It has been noticed that by having a consideration of ethics the business operational activities significance can be advanced effectively. If business ethics are not being followed then it will impact the Tesco brand image in the market in negative manner. It is necessary to ensure that key means of code conduct are followed effectively so that long term sustainability can be attained.

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The entire report will provide the understanding of the management operations by explaining the terms leader, management and how they are co related with other in the working of the organisations. It will help you learn the various roles and characteristics of both the leader and the manager. Also it will provide and insight about the operation management that is how it is done, its importance in the business environment, what factors affects the working of the operation management. Moreover, in the context of operation management it will explain how managers and leaders help in making the operation management more effective.

You may also like to read: 


  • Institute,A., 2008. Leadership and Self-deception: Getting Out of the Box: Easyread Super Large 24pt Edition.
  • Winkler,I., 2010. Contemporary LeadershipSpringer Science & Business Media Theories: Enhancing the Understanding of the Complexity, Subjectivity and Dynamic of Leadership. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Schyns,B., and Meindl, R.J., 2005. Implicit Leadership Theories: Essays and Explorations. IAP.
  • Ahmadi ,A., Vogel ,B., and Collins, C., 2016. An Initial Framework for the Role of Leader Fear in the Knowing-Doing Gap of Leadership, in Neal M. Ashkanasy , Charmine E. J. Härtel , Wilfred J. Zerbe (ed.) Emotions and Organizational Governance (Research on Emotion in Organizations. (12) Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  • C., and Shi ,S., 2014. Blaming leaders for team relationship conflict? The roles of leader-member exchange differentiation and ethical leadership. Nankai Business Review International.
  • Chapman,N.L., Johnson,D., and Kilner ,K., 2014. Leadership styles used by senior medical leaders: Patterns, influences and implications for leadership development. Leadership in Health Services.
  • Clerkin,C., . Ruderman ,N.M., 2016. Holistic Leader Development: A Tool for Enhancing Leader Well-Being, in William A. Gentry , Cathleen Clerkin , Pamela L. Perrewé , Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben , Christopher C. Rosen (ed.) The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress (Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being. (14) .Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
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