Following are the questions which are considered by the student given below:
- Differentiate between the role of a leader and the function of a manager.
- Describe the role of a leader and the functions of a manager in a given context.
- Explain the appreciation of the role leaders & managers play in the operations functions of the company.
- Describe the relationship between leadership and management in a contemporary business environment.
Operations management is defined as an administration of certain practices of a business in order to create high efficiency level that is possible within an enterprise. It helps in improving overall goodwill of an enterprise and its presence in market which helps in increasing its productivity. This report is based upon TESCO, which is a retail giant and its headquarter in in United Kingdom (Andersen, 2019). This report covers determination and comparison between characteristics and roles of leaders and managers in TESCO context. It also covers the manner in which they act in different situations of an organisation. Further, it covers application of theories and approaches that includes situational, contingency and system leadership. This report also covers the main operation management approaches and the role which is played by managers and leaders in this context. Further, it states the value and significance of operation management towards achievement of organisational objectives. At the end of the report, it covers forces that are available within a business environment which has impact upon operation management and the procedure of decision making.
P1. Determination and comparison among leaders and managers roles
Management structure of TESCO- This organisation deals with Supermarket, Hypermarket, Superstore and convenience shops and provides all types of groceries, clothes and accessories to its customers. This organisation follows a particular hierarchical structure of management which makes sure to have smooth functioning of its business (Tesco Management Hierarchy, 2018). In this, all functions are divided in long command chains and it helps to establish well defined roles to everyone without creating any confusion.
Leader- A leader is a person who supervise, guides and motivates a workforce towards achieving overall objectives of an organisation. A leader is one who convince other people to follow and inspires confidence in them.
- The basic role of a leader of Tesco is to supervise and motivate workforce towards achieving overall objectives of an enterprise.
- To create a long term vision for TESCO and able to provide guidance to workers in improving their performance and in solving problems.
- The character that make TESCO's leader to stand out of crowd is moral courage and ability to take risks.
- Another characteristic of leader of TESCO is having emotional intelligence that provides high amount of job satisfaction to workers (Babich and Hilary, 2019).
Manager- A manager is a person who control, manages, guides and supervise activities of employees to work towards achieving organisational objectives.
- The main role of managers of TESCO is to manage and control all the activities of workers towards achieving overall objectives of an enterprise.
- To plan all the activities and distribute all the tasks and activities among workers and supervise them if they are performing well.
- The main characteristic of managers of this entity is time management and to make sure that all tasks are executed on time.
- Delegation is another characteristic which is possessed by manager of this organisation, that is, to delegate the significant authorities among team members.
Roles- Both managers and leaders delegate authorities to workers and supervise them towards achieving overall goals of an organisation. Also, both of them measure the performance of their workers and ensures that they are on right track.
Characteristics- Both of them are good communicator and makes sure that they communicate all the tasks and activities among workers in an appropriate manner (Berenguer and Shen, 2019). Both of them are goal oriented and makes all possible efforts to achieve their goals.
M1. Concepts of management and leadership
Management and leadership both are important aspects of an organisation and it is important for an enterprise to effectively utilise these concepts and apply them within a business entity. This can be elaborated in more detail as follows and highlights the basic differences between leaders and managers by applying below mentioned theories-
System management theory- As per this theory, an organisation success is dependent upon various significant elements such as interdependence, interrelations and synergy among different subsystems. This theory believes in the concept that workers are crucial elements of an enterprise and also work groups, business units and other departments are also consider to be important as per this theory (Cole, Stevenson and Aitken, 2019). In this, the role of manager is to evaluate events and pattern in TESCO for determining best approach towards management.
Transformational Leadership theory- It is a leadership theory in which a leader works in a team for identifying required changes and creating a vision for guiding changes with the help of inspiration. In this approach, leaders plays an important role in motivating and encouraging employees towards innovating new ideas and bringing them within an enterprise.
P2. Functions of managers and leaders in situational contexts
There are various situations that can take place within an organisation, and it becomes important for both leader and managers to perform various roles in this (Copacino, 2019). Below are different organisational situations that can take place in TESCO and the role of both managers and leaders in this regard are elaborated-
Conflicts among workforce- This is the most common situation that can take place in TESCO or in any enterprise. Sometimes conflicts can create among employees due to lack of coordination, communication gap and other reasons such as jealousy factors. In this, manager personally meet both the workers and try to understand their situation and listen to both sides of story. After, it managers take any kind of action and try to resolve the conflict. In this situation, leaders can investigate in an appropriate manner and than take action. Here, both of them can use classical theory of leadership and management in which they are able to manage necessary information regarding team members and can share it. This will result in reduction in conflicts.
Rapid changes- Sometimes sudden changes can take place in an organisation due to various factors such as due to changes in tastes and preferences of customers. For instance, customer prefers innovative product, so there are possibility of changes in organisational activities. In this, it is the responsibility of managers of TESCO to delegate and distribute tasks among workers and manage activities performed by them. Similarly, leaders plays a major role in making decisions regarding changes in organisation and motivating workforce to cope with these changes (David and David, 2019). Here, leaders can use transformational theory of leadership which will help them to motivate workforce to innovate new product that meet customer's expectations.
P3. Application of leadership approaches
Leadership approaches are defined as a style of leadership which are adopted by leader so that leaders can guide and motivate workers so that they can achieve organisational objectives. Different leaders uses different leadership approach and these approaches can be used by TESCO for effective leadership style. Some of these approaches are determined as follows-
Situational Leadership- In this leadership approach, leader of an enterprise have to adjust leadership style for fitting into the level of development of subordinates which he is trying to inspire (Eyers and Naim, 2019). In this approach, leadership style can change continuously for meeting other needs within an enterprise based upon an situation.
Under this theory, leader play a role to develop and design certain policies and plans as per the situation which enhances their performance towards achieving business objectives. In this, it is the responsibility of manager to measure organisational situation and delegate tasks that are beneficial for enterprise.
System Leadership- In this style of leadership, leaders of an enterprise creates certain conditions in which all level of employees can work in an efficient manner as per their potential. If this theory is applied in TESCO than individual can develop strategies and plans to assign tasks that can be performed in a systematic manner.
In this theory, the basic role of leader is to provide healthy and safe working environment to workers so that they are motivated to achieve business objectives. It is the responsibility of managers to monitor all regulations and rules which can provide workers their rights so that they perform more appropriately.
Contingency Leadership- In this theory, the effectiveness of leader is contingent on the way the leadership style can match with the situation. This theory states that there is no leadership style that is best and a leader must adopt leadership style which is best suitable.
In this approach, leader motivate employees so that they can perform in more appropriate manner (Greasley, 2019). Similarly, managers delegate different authorities to workers and makes sure that they perform in an appropriate manner.
M2. Strengths and weaknesses of approaches
This approach creates a comfortable working environment which increases satisfaction among workers.
This theory focuses upon immediate requirement and not upon long term needs. Thus, this approach is not suitable for rapid changes situation in an enterprise.
It enhances the adaptability of environment towards the changes in business environment. This is suitable in rapid changes situation of an enterprise.
It leads to delay in decision making procedure as it is not always practical. This theory is not appropriate in resolving conflicts among workforce (Berenguer and Shen, 2019).
It is dynamic in nature and in this leadership policies can be changes according to the situation, which makes it best for resolving conflicts and situation of rapid changes.
It is reactive in nature which leads to creation of complexity among working environment.
Both managers and leaders works in an appropriate towards achieving organisational objectives in TESCO. For improving the organisation in future and for its future development, leader of TESCO is required to be more attentive towards competitors prevailing in market and have to formulate more innovative strategy to meet customer's requirements. Similarly, managers should start listening to their employees and their requirements (Kanki, Anca and Chidester, 2019). It is the responsibility of HR manager to conduct team building activities which will reduce the chances of conflicts.
P4. Key approaches towards operation management
Operation management refers to conversion of labour and material into products ad services in as efficient manner as possible for maximising overall organisational profits. In regards to TESCO, there are various approaches that can be used by an organisation for managing overall operations of a business (Muller, CommVault Systems Inc, 2019). These are determined as follows-
TQM- Total quality management is determined as continuous procedure that is utilised to reduce and detect errors that can take place in streamlining supply management chain, manufacturing, improvement in customer experience and to ensure that workers are up to speed while training. This system is utilised in TESCO for looking after customer needs and making sure that its implementation is successful (Myers, 2019). In this, leader set up a role for measuring activities and actions of production and managers makes sure that there is continuous improvement in business proceedings.
Just in time- In this method, it is ensured that the time that is taken within production system is reduced and it also ensures to reduce response times from customers to suppliers. In TESCO, this approach is utilised to minimise waste to produce goods and services in accordance to target audience at the requirement phase. In this operation management approach, leaders help in making sure that employees have appropriate information regarding their duties, responsibilities and job roles. Whereas, managers plays an important role in making sure that all the workers are working in an efficient manner with their full efficiency.
P5. Importance and value of operation management
Operation management is very important for an enterprise to improve employees productivity and to enhance its goodwill in market. This helps in achieving overall objectives and goals of a business by effectively managing the overall business activities and by minimising wastes. The importance of operation management is seen in following points-
Control and distribution systems- This is one of the most important function that is performed by operation management as it is accountable in controlling overall business activities in manufacturing procedure and in making sure that there is appropriate products and services distribution for meeting company's objectives. It also results in fulfilling company's objectives that is of effective use. Its effectiveness can developed by accepting a strong control system for developing logistics infrastructure of TESCO for attaining business goals.
Process design- This is another important function that is performed by this enterprise as by this, company's management can design and frame company's production actions. It is vital for TESCO as by it, its management can improve its manufacturing process and can manufacture products as per requirements of customers (Nonogaki, NEC Display Solutions Ltd, 2019). It can be proved to be beneficial by an enterprise to accomplish business objectives to fulfil customer needs through offering goods according to their needs.
Logistics and inventory- This is one of the crucial function of operation management as it provides effective support of goods and logistics that can not be distributed and supplied in market when they are highly needed. In TESCO, it can concentrate upon inventory management as it helps the company to maintain an effective goods and services supply that are developed by an enterprise as per customer's needs.
In order to improve the efficiency of operation management, leader can empower staff to produce high level while conducting activities. The best way by which leader can inspire workers is to develop a virtual environment by accessing to virtual private networks. Also, leader must develop a strong vision and have ability in articulating and emphasizing imperatives of a business (Qi and Shen, 2019). Moreover, manager in this can improve and analyse process of an enterprise and work for improving efficiency, productivity and quality of an organisation.
P6. Factors within business environment
Corporate social responsibility- It is a business approach which participate in sustainable development through sharing certain social, environmental and economic advantages to its shareholders. In TESCO, the firm design and CSR policy that are effective upon the stakeholder and on social welfare. This enterprise can invest this in small composition of its overall profits for environmental and social welfare as per conduction of educational programmes and working for environmental safety. Organisation can operate its business activities in order to make sure that these activities do not have negative impact upon environment in which this business is running. Company's administration can utilise raw material of high quality for producing quality products and can conduct production effectively that do not have any harmful impact upon environment.
Value- It is recognised as one of the most important part of business as the valuable goods and services which are manufactured by an enterprise must make sure that target customers are ready to buy these products by paying cost. It affect the determination of managers and leaders as goods and services produced by this enterprise have some value in regards to increased productivity and profit margins (Reid and Sanders, 2019). In TESCO, it also have negative impact upon decision making when products are produced but are not possess any value, which leads to decrease in customers. When leader and managers focus upon developing effective working environment than workers can work in more effective manner to produce products.
Ethics- This is a procedure to perform certain activities while considering values and culture of an enterprise (Terwiesch, 2019). If firm's administration offer a secure and healthy workplace than workers can complete allotted work in an effective manner. Ethical businesses is determined as a business that operated by an organisation after following all ethics, rules, values and regulations that can provide benefits to stakeholders. In TESCO, if it do not operate business activities in appropriate manner than it will not help them to benefit the firm and leader's decision making can have negative impact.
Sustainability- This refers to a force which focus upon achieving current generation's requirements without devising any compromises with future generation's requirements. In TESCO, it is important for this organisation as it will help in providing customer's information regrading management which accomplishes aims of business for saving origins that are required by this enterprise in future. It also affects the decision making when any kind of fluctuation takes place towards achieving existing and future needs of customers.
Corporate social responsivity, value, ethics and sustainability have large impact upon overall business environment in which an organisation operates its business activities. When an enterprise provides high quality goods and services to customers than it will motivate them to purchase more (Andersen, 2019). Similarly, when an enterprise produce products without having harm to environment, than it will enhance the overall goodwill of a company which will oppositely affect the business environment in a wider contexts.
From the above report, it has been concluded that leader and manager are the most important resources of an enterprise who has various roles and responsibilities within an organisation. There are certain points of differentiation between them such as leader motivates workers to achieve business goals and manager just delegate tasks among the workers. This report also covers various leadership approaches that can be adopted by leaders of a particular organisation. For instance, situational leadership works on an approach that a leader must act according to a specific situation prevailing in an enterprise. Further, it concludes that there are various approaches of operation management such as TQM by which employees and management can more involved into continuous improving goods and services production. At the end, it concludes that an enterprise should work with ethics and moral in order to achieve overall business objectives and enhance its goodwill.