What Is Research Methodology?
Research methodology entails the tools and techniques which are employed by the scholar to find out the suitable solution of issue or problem. It entails the paradigm, models, phases and techniques which are undertaken by the researcher for conducting study more effectively and efficiently (Bauer, 2014). Hence, methodology may be served as a systematic plan that provides assistance to the researcher in conducting the whole study in a highly structured way. Moreover, clear and precise methodology prevents confusion from the mind of researcher and thereby helps in conducting investigation in the best possible way.
In this, scholar identifies the approaches, philosophies as well as data collection and analysis technique in accordance with the research issue. In this way, methodology provides direction to the researcher in relation to the steps which they need to undertake for getting information about the financial structure undertaken by the publicly listed companies of Jordan banking sector (Chilisa, 2011). Hence, research methodology furnishes information about the approaches undertaken by scholar for evaluating the problem statement. Besides this, it also provides deeper insight about accessibility and ethical aspects that are followed by the investigator with the aim to raise effectiveness of study.
In order to conduct investigation more effectually researcher is required to make selection of research type. Moreover, determination of approach, philosophy, data collection method and analysis technique is highly influenced from the type and nature of study. Hence, type of research can be distinguished into two types such as qualitative and quantitative. Thus, researcher needs to select type of investigation by taking into consideration the problem statement or issue (Petty, Thomson and Stew, 2012). Qualitative investigation may be served as an exploratory kind of research or study which is used to develop understanding about reasons and motivation related to such issue.
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Along with this, such kind or research or study also helps in developing hypothesis for quantitative research or study. Such kind of investigation is highly suitable only when small number of non-representative cases is analyzed. In addition this, according to such investigation type unstructured or semi-structured techniques are undertaken by scholar for the collection of data. Further, in this, data is analyzed through the means of non-statistical tools and techniques. In this way, such study develops sound base for future decision making to a great extent (Coleman and Ringrose, 2013).
On the other side, quantitative investigation helps in making evaluation of numeric facts and figures. By using such type hypothesis can be evaluated or tested by the scholar. In this regard, by applying the quantitative data analysis tools and techniques scholar can present the findings. Hence, results attained through the means of quantitative investigation are highly reliable in nature (Cammarota and Fine, 2010). Moreover, statistical tools and techniques provide researcher with appropriate outcome. The reason behind this, Z, T, chi-square test, regression etc. helps researcher in evaluating the dependency level, mean differences as well as relationship which takes place between the two or more variables. Hence, such type helps in assessing the suitable output from the sample which is derived randomly (Schmitt, 2010). Further, by doing quantitative investigation researcher can recommend appropriate final course of action. Thus, researcher needs to consider all the above aspects while making selection of the type of study.
In this, with the motive to analyze the impact of capital structure on organizational financial institution qualitative research design has been selected. Hence, in this, evaluation has been made by the scholar to analyze the reasons and opinions due to which different kind of theories and model is undertaken by the managers of banking institution. In addition to this, by assessing the opinions of managers researcher can identify the manner in which capital structure affects the performance of banking institutions in monetary terms (Flick, 2015). Hence, data related to capital structure and financial performance has been gathered and analyzed by the researcher according such investigation type. Hence, by doing online survey data has been gathered from managers regarding the capital structure aspect. Further, thematic analysis technique has been selected for making evaluation of qualitative aspects (Zhang, 2013). Thus, qualitative study has been conducted by scholar on Jordan publicly listed organizations of banking sector.
Approaches of the research can be divided into two parts such as inductive and deductive. In study, approaches of research help in evaluating the each and every aspect of problem in the best possible way. Hence, by making selection of suitable approach scholar can deal with the issues more efficiently. Moreover, research approaches highly vary in accordance with the type of investigation carried out. Inductive approach is highly suits to the qualitative type of investigation (Gast and Ledford, 2014). On the other side, researcher can deal with the quantitative type of investigation effectually by taking into consideration the deductive approach.
Under deductive approach, researcher generalizes the issues by moving from general to specific aspects. Moreover, in such approach investigator starts from specific theories and thereby tests hypothesis according to it. Thus, according to such approach study ends with the confirmation of hypothesis that is developed by the scholar (Drake and Heath, 2010). Along with this, such approach lays emphasis on evaluating proposition or hypothesis on the basis of existing theoretical framework. By considering this, it can be said that data is used for the evaluation of hypothesis to a great extent. Further, such approach focuses on the verification aspects of theory.
Inductive approach implies for the one which generalizes from specific to the general aspect or framework. Hence, data which is gathered by the scholar is used for exploring the specific phenomenon (Hunleth, 2011). Besides this, in this, investigator focuses on assessing themes and patterns with the main to create highly effective conceptual framework. Thus, such approach starts with observation. In this, new theory is developed by the researcher by making evaluation of pattern and tentative hypothesis. Hence, researcher needs to consider the type of investigation while making selection of research approach (Hodkinson and Macleod, 2010).
In order to assess the impact of capital structure on the performance of financial institution inductive approach has been used scholar. Moreover, scholar has selected qualitative type of investigation. In this situation, inductive approach will provide high level of assistance to the researcher in presenting the fair view of study (Saldanha and O'Brien, 2014). In this, researcher will observe and thereby evaluates the pattern in which capital structure has impact on the growth and performance of companies which are operated in Jordon banking sector.
Research philosophy entails the manner in which data related to specific issue will be gathered and evaluated by scholar. There are mainly two kind of philosophies that can be used by researcher namely interpretivism and positivism. Such philosophies also vary according to type and nature of investigation. Positivism philosophy is undertaken by the researcher when they need to analyze quantitative facts and figures. However, researcher can also use such philosophy in the qualitative type of investigation (Mackey and Gass, 2015). In addition to this, such philosophy is highly structured and helps in deriving suitable solution when sample size is large. Thus, by taking into consideration the positivism philosophy researcher can conduct quantitative investigation in an appropriate manner.
In contrast to this, when qualitative investigation is conducted by scholar then interpretivism philosophy helps in gathering and analyzing data in the right direction. Under interpretivism philosophy, researcher interprets the element of study. Hence, it lays more focus on integrating the human interests at the time of making evaluation of data. Such philosophy is used by scholar with the aim to develop co-ordination between the several diverse approaches. Thus, by making use of multiple approaches and methods researcher can make proper evaluation of research issue (Zivkovic, 2012).
In the present study, interpretivism philosophy has been undertaken by the scholar. Hence, both primary and secondary data related to companies of Jordon banking sector has been gathered and assessed by the scholar in accordance with such philosophy. Along with this, selection of interpretivism philosophy is highly appropriate which in turn helps in doing qualitative investigation more effectively (Miller, Birch, Mauthner and Jessop, 2012). Hence, several theories and methods have been employed by the scholar for identifying the impact of capital structure on the performance level or aspect of financial institutions.
Research design can be defined as the overall strategy which selects by the researcher to integrate the various elements of the investigation in logical and coherent manner (Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffin, 2013). This helps in effectively address the research problem because it contains a blueprint for data collection, its measurement and analysis. Selection of the research design has made a significant impact over the reliability of the collected outcomes. This can be considered as a foundation for the whole research. It is more important in the research is because of ensuring the smoothing function of the various research operations (Research design, 2009). Research design makes the investigation more effective and efficient with the aim of gain complete information with less use of resources such time, funds etc. As at the time of construction of a house, it requires a proper blueprint by consulting with expert architect. Same here in the research, research design helps in plan to collect the data and analyze it for attain the objectives and answer of the research questions (Bryman and Bell, 2015). At time of development of the investigation plan, the researchers should create a proper research design so that it enables the investigator to organize his ideas in the right manner.
There are various types of research designs that generally consider by the researchers in their investigation. Descriptive is one of the research designs which are used to define characteristics of a population that is taking into the consideration for the study. It does not help in answering questions related to how, when and why these characteristics of selected population has occurred (Kondziella and Bruckner, 2016). The following research design commonly based on explanatory research. This cannot define what the origin of a situation is. Aim of descriptive research design is to put the lights on the selected issue via collection of data because it helps in describing the situation in an effective manner (Bernard and Bernard, 2012). On the other hand, causal research design has based on qualitative method of research where one qualitative variable of the same groups have taken into the consideration and try to determine the impact of variation in it on other variables. It has allowed finding the relationship between the selected variables. The data collection in this research design method has done with the use of case-control study, observational study etc. While in the case of experimental research design, it utilizes to manipulate and control of the data with the aim of understand causal processes (Castleden and et.al., 2017). This is a scientific and systematic approach to investigation where the investigator manipulates one or more elements and tries to control or change the generated outcome as per the expectations.
The present investigation has based to critically analyze the impact of capital structure on financial performance for Jordan- Banking sector. In this context, the researcher has been chosen causal research design because it has helped in determine reason behind a wide range of procedures and evaluate the impacts of changes on existing outcomes. With the help of this, it has assisted the research to determine the variation in one element on other factors (Smith, 2014)
Data collection methods
Data collection is essential for doing investigation because without having enough information researcher is not is position to give appropriate solution. Thus, researcher gathers data from the variety of sources with the motive to present accurate picture of issue. Hence, specifically primary and secondary are the main two types of methods which researcher can use to gather specific data. Primary data may be defined as those which are specifically gathered by the investigator to resolve issue (Neuman and Robson, 2012). Hence, it is also considered as first time investigation which in turn helps scholar in fulfilling the research aims and objectives. In this regard, primary data can be gathered by the investigator from variety of sources such as survey, observation, focus group, interview, experimental study etc. All such primary data methods help scholar in making collection of large amount of information pertaining to the specific issue (Schmidt and Hunter, 2014).
Under observation method, researcher gathers data by observing the specific phenomenon or aspect. In this, data is gathered by the researcher without approaching to respondents. On the other side, in interview, researcher gathers data by preparing suitable checklist according to the research issue or purpose. Besides this, in survey, researcher collects data by preparing the suitable questionnaire. (Panneerselvam, 2014) Hence, under such method of data collection researcher frames questionnaire by including both open and close ended questions that directly addresses the research aims.
Unlike primary data, secondary records are the one which are collected by some other authority. Hence, in this, user and authority who gathers data is highly different from each other. Thus, books, journals, scholarly articles and government reports are the major secondary data sources which can be used by the researcher for evaluating the problem or issue. Moreover, books which are written by different authors help in developing high level of understanding about the subject area (Silverman, 2016). Besides this, journals which are published by different scholars help in gaining deeper insight about the topic. Along with this, government also conducts investigation and provides other researcher with effectual framework for further study.
To assess the extent to which capital structure has an impact on the performance level of Jordon banking institution data has been gathered by the scholar from both primary and secondary sources. Hence, survey has been organized or conducted by scholar with the motive to get enough information about issue. Thus, questionnaire has been developed by the researcher by including questions regarding the debt and equity aspects. Hence, by asking such questions from respondents researcher would become able to assess the impact that capital structure has on monetary aspects of banking institutions (Bergold and Thomas, 2012). Survey is one of the most effectual methods which enables researcher to gather data within the suitable time frame at low cost. Thus, by taking into consideration all such aspects survey method has been selected by the researcher to gather primary data.
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Along with this, books and scholarly articles also have been used by the researcher for the collection of data. In order to develop understanding about the impact of capital structure on firm’s performance other articles related to it has also been used by the scholar (Eriksson and Kovalainen, 2015). This in turn enables scholar to set suitable aims and objectives for further study. Further, varied books also have been considered by the scholar to get information about capital structure theories and models. In addition to this, data related to debt and equity aspect of banking institutions also have been gathered by scholar. Moreover, both these elements are the main part of capital structure which in turn places direct impact on the financial aspect of firm. Hence, by using both primary and secondary data researcher can present the fair aspects of study (Fabozzi, Huang and Zhou, 2010).
In the present era, due to having large universe or population it is not possible for the scholar to conduct survey on whole. Hence, with the aim to conduct survey within the suitable time frame researcher is required to select suitable samples size. Sampling techniques can be divided by the scholar into two types such as probabilistic and non-probabilistic. Hence, probabilistic technique can be defined as one in which each individual of target population gets equal chance to being selected as sample (Lorino, Tricard and Clot, 2011). Types of probabilistic sampling technique include cluster, strata and stratified etc.
On the other side, non-probabilistic sampling technique implies for those in which researcher makes selection of sample according to his/her convenience level. Hence, types of non-probabilistic sampling technique include convenience, purposive, snow-ball etc. Thus, by making selection of suitable sample in accordance with such techniques researcher can select suitable sample on which study will focus. Hence, researcher needs to take proper care while determining the sample for study (Jang and Park, 2011). Moreover, if researcher failed to select suitable sample then it may result into unrealistic framework or outcome. The main reason behind this when survey is conducted on inappropriate sample size then it may result into unrealistic outcome.
For the present investigation, the researcher has chosen random sampling method. The reason of selection of the following one is because of minimize the biasness at the time of carry out the experiment and collect fair data. It has required the minimum knowledge of the study group of population. Along with this, random sampling has allowed the researcher to easy analyze the data in an effective manner. This has effectively represented the selected population for the investigation. The sample size for the research has 10 finance managers of Jordan- Banking sector. This has helped in get the answer of the research questions and addresses the research objectives.
It may be defined as a process which is highly associated with the inspection, cleansing, transformation and modeling of data. Data analysis techniques play a vital role and provide high level of assistance in discovering the useful information to the large extent. Moreover, by considering the suitable technique researcher makes evaluation of data gathered from varied sources. In this way, effectiveness and appropriateness of study is highly influenced from data analysis technique (Smith, 2015). Hence, data analysis highly differs in accordance with the type of investigation undertaken. Thematic perception test is one of the most common data analysis techniques that are employed by researcher to evaluate qualitative aspects. In accordance with such technique researcher makes analysis of data by preparing several themes on the basis of questionnaire. In this, by evaluating several themes according to secondary data researcher can present findings in an effectual way (Chilisa, 2011).
Along with this, SPSS tool is employed by the researcher to evaluate quantitative facts and figures. Hence, by developing hypothesis and applying several tools such as Z and T test, regression on data scholar can analyze numeric figures. Moreover, regression tool helps researcher in evaluating the dependency of one variable on another (Petty, Thomson and Stew, 2012). Along with this, by applying descriptive statistics researcher can analyze the mean, mode and median of specific data set. This in turn helps researcher in making suitable decision from large data set. Further, chi square test helps in assessing the aspect that relationship which takes place between the two variables is by default or having any significant cause. On the other side, T-test helps in assessing the extent to which mean value or variance of two normal distributions are known. In this way, such wide range of SPSS tools and techniques help in conducting in-depth investigation of numeric aspects.
Hence, in order to analyze and evaluate qualitative aspects thematic perception test technique has been adopted by the scholar. In this regard, by preparing several themes view points of the manager of publicly listed Jordan banking institution has been analyzed by the scholar. In addition to this, themes also have been developed by the scholar regarding the financial aspects and performance of banking companies from the period of 2010 to 2015. Thus, by conducting thematic analysis results have been derived by the scholar (Coleman and Ringrose, 2013).
Ethical consideration is the most important part of the research to make the investigation more ethical. It can be considered as the norms or standards in the study that helps in make the difference between right and wrong (Schmitt, 2010). There are several reasons which show that ethical considerations are the most important in the research. Firstly, ethical standards prevent against the invention of fake data and promoted the search of that information and knowledge which is true in nature. Ethical behavior encourages an environment of accountability, trust and mutual respect among researchers during the investigation (Hussain and Khuddro, 2016). This has helped in overcome the issues related to data sharing, breaching copyright guidelines, co-authorship, confidentiality of data etc. Another reason that put the emphasis over the important of following the ethical consideration during the research is adopting codes and policies. These have addressed several kinds of issues like objectivity, honesty, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality, social responsibility, non-discrimination etc. These all have provided few basic and main guidelines regarding the research (Cuomo and Massaro, 2016). On the other hand, third reason that emphasize over the ethical consideration in the investigation is promoting the aim of research. With the help of this, it becomes possible that the use of misrepresenting research data during the study can be easily minimized. In addition to this, promote the values that are essential for collaborative work during conducting the investigation. This thing has minimized the issue related to steal of idea of the other researchers or discloses the gather information for personal benefits (Zhang, 2013). In this series of reasons related to importance of ethical consideration, another most essential reason is ensuring the study held by the investigators in the favour and well-being of the public.
In the context of to critically analyze the impact of capital structure on financial performance for Jordan- Banking sector dissertation, the researcher has taken some ethical consideration while performing the investigation. Informed consent is the main ethical issue which has occurred while conducting the study. This is related to rights of independent individuals through self- determination (Drake and Heath, 2010). During the research, the researcher has protected the rights of participants and other information which has been collected from various sources. In addition to this, beneficence i.e. do not harm ethical consideration has taken into the consideration by the scholar. In this, it has made sure by the researcher that at the time of data collection from different source, there has not any harm or discomfort rise by the investigator to the respondents in physiological, emotional, social and economic manner. On the other hand, during carrying out the research, the investigator has collected the data from primary and secondary sources (Wiek and Lang, 2016). During this, confidentiality of gather information has maintained and has ensured by the scholar that these have not used any personal reasons or other kind of benefits. Further, the researcher has respected the privacy of the respondents at the time of primary data collection. Because it has possible that some of the responders have avoid sharing the personal information and opinions towards the asked questions with the scholar. So, by considering this reason, the researcher has made certain about respecting privacy of the respondents (Hodkinson and Macleod, 2010).
Reliability and validity
Reliability and validity are the two major elements which in turn help in enhancing the effectiveness of output to the significant level are enumerated below:
Authentic sources: For developing and maintaining high level of reliability secondary data has been gathered by researcher from highly authentic sources (Saldanha and O'Brien, 2014). The rationale behind this, data which is protected through the means of copyright offer highly valuable information for decision making purpose. Along with this, data related to debt and equity also has been gathered by the researcher from the annual report of banking institution. Moreover, annual reports serve highly authentic information about the monetary aspects and performance of firm (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, 2015). Thus, it can be said that authentic data sources help in conducting the whole study more efficiently.
Proper citation: For making the findings more valid proper citations of the respective data sources have been made by the scholar. It shows that data have rephrased by the researcher for developing a suitable thesis. Moreover, in the absence of proper citation work is considered as copied. By taking into account all such aspects researcher has made proper citation of sources from where data is gathered (Zivkovic, 2012).
Latest data sources: In the present era, changes take place in the business environment more frequently (Bryman and Bell, 2015). Thus, with the motive to develop understanding about the impact of capital structure on firm’s performance information has been gathered by the researcher from latest books, journals and scholarly articles. By keeping such aspects in mind data from 2005 to 2016 has been gathered for the preparation of brief secondary data thesis. In addition to this, financial information related from 2010 to 2015 has been collected by scholar to analyze the impact of capital structure (Özerdem and Bowd, 2016). Hence, through the means of latest secondary data sources research can conduct study appropriately.
No manipulation in data collected: All the information that is served by the managers of public listed Jordan banking institution is recorded and analyzed by the researcher in a clear and precise manner. Hence, no manipulation has been done by scholar in the output derived from survey (Baskerville and Wood-Harper, 2016). Besides this, figures of debt and equity have been mentioned by the researcher in line with the final accounts. Hence, accuracy level has been maintained by the scholar in the study to the large extent.
In addition to this, journals which are related to the topic of capital structure have been considered by the researcher (Rose, 2016). Moreover, journals which are highly related to such topic helps in developing suitable thesis. Further, it also helps in making analysis of data more effectively. The main reason behind this, under thematic analysis scholar makes evaluation of data according to secondary data gathered. It presents that data analysis section and findings which have been derived by the scholar on the basis of it are highly valid or reliable. Besides this, such aspect shows that conclusion and recommendations which have been provided by the scholar according to findings (Bernard and Bernard,).
Thus, by considering all such aspects it can be said that proper reliability and validity has been maintained in the study. Thus, 10 publicly listed Jordan banking institutions and other scholars can make use of such study for making effectual decisions.
Limitations which are prevailed in such investigation are as follows:
Time: In the present time, one can build or sustain competitive edge over others only when they conduct or present study within the suitable time frame. Hence, limited time frame is one of the main limitations of such study. Moreover, due to having limited time frame it is not possible for researcher to conduct investigation in more depth. Moreover, if researcher has enough time to conduct investigation then they can make evaluation of the viewpoints of several managers (Leavy, 2016). However, scholar has conducted study on 10 publicly listed banking institutions of Jordan. Hence, outcome of issue has been presented by taking into consideration the sample of 10 banking institution which is highly appropriate. Moreover, in the case of large data set it is not highly possible for researcher to present fair solution. Along with this, by following the research plan study has been conducted on capital structure and its impact on financial aspects within the suitable time frame (Smith, 2014). Thus, researcher has made optimum utilization of time frame and thereby presented study on capital structure which has high level of importance in the present times.
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Financial resources: Due to having lack of enough financial resources thematic analysis has been conducted by the scholar. On the others side, if researcher has proper financial resources then they would become able to employ highly advanced tools and techniques. In this way, by employing highly advanced tools and techniques researcher can derive highly realistic solution (Robson and McCartan, 2016). However, in this, according to the type of research thematic analysis technique will help scholar in providing suitable solution of issue.
Data collection: At the time of data collection scholar has faced difficulty in the gathering secondary information. Moreover, there are several websites which are not easily accessible. This is one of the main problems which are faced by the scholar during investigation. In addition to this, most of the sites which are not protected through the means of copyright. (Research Instruments for Data Collection. 2014) However, due to the lack of proper finance difficulties have been faced by the scholar in relation to getting access of such sites. This in turn closely influences the appropriateness aspect of study. In this way, difficulty has been faced by the scholar in relation to gathering of highly authentic information in line with the research issue or purpose.
Hence, by conducting in-depth research or investigation data related to impact of capital structure on firm’s performance has been collected by the scholar (English and Kirshner, 2016). This aspect shows that high level of efforts have been made by the scholar to make the study more accurate.
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