Leadership and Management for Service Industries


Leadership can be defined as the ability of an individual or group of individuals that have the power to influence the decision of another person (leadership,2019). Management can be defined as the control or direction provided to the employees in the organisation according to the rules and policies of the organisation. The Restaurant Chain chosen for the completion of this assignment is Docklands Academy, London. The assignment will focus on the application of different management theories and leadership styles adopted by Managers of Docklands Academy in for evaluating the impact of digital technology on managing and leading. It will further focus on use of leadership skills done by the company and will also focus on the future management skills and required by the Hospitality Sector. It will also provide an understanding about the change management systems and leadership due to change in the organisation (Bon and Mustafa, 2013).

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Main Body

P1) Application of Different Classical Management Theories in Hospitality Industry

There are different theories which were propounded by many scientists. Some of them which are best applicable are discussed as under:

Classical Management Theory: The following theory was propounded by Fredrick Winslow Taylor in the early 1900s. This theory emphasized on increasing the productivity of workers. The goals of this theory is to provide the employees with proper equipments to perform their tasks provided to them in an efficient manner so that they can be made responsible for the outcomes. The theory was mainly based on the application of four principles:

  • Workers should be provided with the job according to their skills and abilities.
  • Proper planning must be done to avoid future variance.
  • Training and incentives such as wages must be provided to them for increasing output and efficiency.
  • Standards should be set for doing each job.





Making a scientific decision





Management Science: Operational Research, cost accounting etc.


Manager-Worker Collaboration






Further management-workman collaboration (prevents the clashes)

Techniques Time and Motion Studies





Using standardized times on a large scale

Shorter working hours/ rest range





Common use of rest breaks in a week for 40 hours (or less)

Dockland Academy can apply Classical Management Theory propounded by Fredrick Winslow Taylor for creating positive impact on digital technology. There is a need for all managers which are Finance, Marketing and Restaurant to deal calmly and patiently to with all employees (Yee and et. al., 2013). There is a need to guide them at every step and clear their doubts so that their interest and confidence can be enhanced. With passing of time, standards and time for completion of work must be assessed which will help in increasing their efficiency.

Bureaucratic Management Theory:The following theory was propounded by Max Weber in 19thCentury, which is based on systematic formation of an organisation and ensures efficiency and economic effectiveness in work. It focuses six bureaucratic management principles:

Task Specialisation:Tasks must be divided into simple categories and and their dividing must be based on the specialisation of the workers.

Hierarchical of Authority:It says that employees must get orders from one seniors to avoid overlapping of work.

Formal Selection:The selection of employees must be done on the basis of their skills and competencies.

Rules and Requirements:Clear rules and requirements must be stated to employees so that uniformity in work can be set up.

Impersonal:The application of set rules and regulations must be done in an impersonal way which will not harm feelings of employees.

Career Orientation:As employees are hired on the basis of their skills and knowledge so providing right job to right people will help in increasing their efficiency level and further help in developing their career.

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P2) Role of Leader and Different Leadership Styles

The Roles of Leaderis explained as under:

  • Clarifying the Mission and communicating effectively.
  • Proper guidance and support to employees.
  • Increasing employee engagement at every level.

Different Types of Leadership Styles:

There are different types of leadership styles which can be applied in Docklands Academy:

Authoritarian Leadership Style: In this leadership style, the main focus is on the outcomes by commanding and controlling the followers by leaders (Clark, Silvester and Knowles, 2013).

Participative Leadership Style: In this leadership style, guidance is provided to employees and their participation is also encouraged in decision making process. However the final decision is of the leader but is contributes much in affecting their mindset as they are also given due importance.

P3) Reviewing Management Theories and Leadership Styles in Dockland Academy

Leadership Styles:

The positive impact of digital technology can only be achieved by applying participative leadership style as in this change employees need proper guidance and support from their leaders so that it will become easy for them to accept changes and create efficiency in their work.

Management Styles:

For creating positive impact of digital technology on management style of Finance, Marketing and Restaurant Managers, these management styles will best suit. In case of complex adoption such as the use of software for preparing income and expenditure accounts, the use of autocratic management style will be best because due to complexity, employees will not easily adopt the use of digital technology in working. So this management style will be helpful. Marketing and Restaurant Managers can make use of Democratic management styles for making their employees to work as use of social media and knowing about online order are not much complex as compared to preparing income and expenditure account (Carlborg, Kindström and Kowalkowski, 2014).

P4) Internal and External Factors Influencing Management Styles and Structures in Dockland Academy

Internal Factors Affecting Management Styles:

  • Owners are the people who had invested their money in the organisation and as the right to make changes in their policies and procedures of working which will affect the management styles.
  • Employees are the most important element of internal environment of a business and their efficiency of working and outcomes from their work leads to effects on management styles.

External Factors Affecting Management Styles:

  • Technology is the major factor that impacts upon the change in management styles as change in technology will lead to change in the way of working. It is clear from the above stated scenario of Dockland Academy in which the use of digital technology is impacting upon leadership and management styles.
  • Political and Legal factors also effects the management styles as the change in rules and regulation of government will lead to change in the working patterns of Dockland Academy which will make changes in the working of employees (Kanji, 2012)(Pereira-Moliner and et. al., 2012).

Internal Factors Affecting Structure of Dockland Academy:

  • Organisational Structure is directly related to Size of an organisation. Increase of the organisation leads to increase in work processes where standardization and formalisation and specialisation of labours is essential so the increase in size of organisation will leads to change in the current structure to hierarchical organisational structure.
  • Objectives and Strategies of organisation also leads to change in organisational structure as these can be made clear with the help of hierarchical structure.

External Factors Affecting Structure of Dockland Academy:

  • Technology also influences the organisational structure as digital technology has reduced the use of workers in organisations which leads to change in organisational structures because the costs are reduced as the number of levels decreased.
  • Age of the organisation also effects on the organisational structure such as birth ( the very first stage when company is established), youth ( growing stage of organisation when it needs more employees). So it effects in the birth stage the decision making may be centralised and during youth, it is also possible that power can be decentralised which will lead to change in organisational structure.

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P5) Soft and Hard Skills to Management and Leadership Styles with Examples

Soft Skills to Management Styles:

  • Communication is soft skill which his used by Dockland Academy which will help in creating strong relationship with employees.
  • Leadership is another skill which will help in motivating employees to do work by providing them proper guidance and support. For example, employees can be communicated properly by motivating them and clearing their doubts patiently (Iszatt-White, 2012).

Hard Skills to Management Styles:

  • Rewards and punishment are also hard skills which makes employees to work due to fear.
  • Centralisation of power is also hard skill in which the followers can only take orders from leaders and they do not have the right to present their views. For example, employees can be provided rewards for positive result and demotion for negative outcome.

Soft Skills to Leadership Styles:

  • Employee Engagement is a soft skill which entertains employee participation and motivate them to work positively.
  • Empathy is another soft skill which leaders use by giving due importance to the feelings of employees. For example, employees preference and view can also be taken into consideration.

Hard Skills to Leadership Styles:

  • Preparation of rigid schedules of working or completing work is hard skill to leadership which is used by leaders for completing the tasks on time.
  • Demotion and Firing are hard skills to management styles as negative results by employees leads to their demotion or sometimes they are fired from their job. For example, fixing of time for completion of particular task.

P6) Future Management and Leadership Skills and their Achievement

Future Management Skills:Managers of Dockland Academy can make use of soft skills to management styles such as teamwork in future during completion of projects. They can be achieved by making clear them about goals and creating effective coordination among team.

The employees of Dockland Academy can also be included in decision making process of the company as the employees also experiences many things as they spent more time doing work so their suggestions can also be taken for making the better decisions related to the work they are provided with (Mehta, Verma and Seth, 2014).

Future Leadership Skills:In future, Leaders of Dockland Academy can provide employees feedback about their work in a calm and patient way so that positive environment can be created and employee motivation can be enhanced.

Another skill is delegation of authority which can be provided to employees with the passing of time by continuously noticing the performance of their employees as they are capable of taking responsibility or not.

P7) Comparing and Contrasting InterContinentals Hotels Group with Dockland Academy

In implementing change in organisation, the comparison in between these are shown as under:



InterContinental Hotels Group


Dockland Academy

Leadership Styles

The following organisation is making use of Servant Leadership in it working as the business is at large scale so authorities and responsibilities are distributed.

The following organisation makes use of both Participative as it encourages employee participation in the working of the company.

Management Styles

This company is making use of Consultative Management Style as the large chain of business which makes the decision making process complex.

It is using both the Autocratic and Democratic Management styles in its working due to complexity of change took place in organisation.

The management and leadership styles used by Dockland Academy are better than InterContinental Group Hotels as the main focus of Dockland is on increasing the efficiency of employees by taking into consideration their feeling and emotions also which will motivate them and increase their efficiency in work (Shek and Lin, 2015).

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From the above report it is concluded that management and leadership is the essence of an organisation. Application of different theories, management and leadership styles makes it easier for employees to adopt changes. Further it is also concluded that the use of hard and soft skills are also essential and create impacts greatly on the working of employees. Moreover, it is also concluded that it also helps in maintaining and increasing the morale of employees which is also necessary for getting positive result from their work.

Students Also Like to Read:


  • Bon, A. T. and Mustafa, E. M., 2013. Impact of total quality management on innovation in service organizations: Literature review and new conceptual framework. Procedia Engineering. 53.pp.516-529.
  • Yee, R. W. and et. al., 2013. The relationships among leadership, goal orientation, and service quality in high-contact service industries: An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics. 141(2). pp.452-464.
  • Clark, D. M., Silvester, K. and Knowles, S., 2013. Lean management systems: creating a culture of continuous quality improvement. Journal of clinical pathology. 66(8). pp.638-643.
  • Carlborg, P., Kindström, D. and Kowalkowski, C., 2014. The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis. The Service Industries Journal. 34(5). pp.373-398.
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