Context of Business


Motivation is a word which derive from 'Motive' that motivate an individual to work in effective manner in order to fulfil there needs, desire, drives and want. It can be things like desire of success, money, job satisfaction, recognition, appraisal, team work and many more (Koster, 2017). This report is based on Marks and Spencer which is established in 1884 and operating there business in retail industry. Its headquarter is situated in London, United Kingdom and they serve there products and services in worldwide market. This report explain two motivational theory which can be used by respective company.

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Main Body

Describe importance of a motivated workforce by using any two appropriate theories on motivation

To develop and maintain effective work place at Marks and Spencer there employer motivate employees so that they accomplish there work in appropriate manner. That help particular company in attaining goal and objectives in effective ways. For this they use two motivational theory which is explain below:

Theory X and Theory Y:-

This theory is develop by McGregor in year 1960 and according to him there are two different aspects of human behaviour at a workplace. One who have negative behaviour and don't like to work. Whereas another like to work, take responsibilities and have positive attitude. Due to which respective company manger develop motivational strategies accordingly.

Theory X-

This refers to those peoples who didn't like to work and required close supervisions of there employers. They basically avoid responsibilities and they work due to desire of money. So when manager of Marks and Spencer deal with these type of employees they develop different different motivational activities. That directly and indirectly encourage staff to work in effective manner and accomplish task in order to attain goal in appropriate ways. For this manger of respective company adopt various ways like rewarding, appraising, punishing employees according to situation (Gagné, 2014). Along with this they must provide close supervision to these type of employees so that there is reduction in mistakes and work accomplish in proper manner.

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Theory Y-

These are those type of employees whose behaviour is positive and they like to take responsibilities of work. These type of staffs wants independence in there work, they are self motivated as well as these employees want to work in effective way (Chen and, 2013). These peoples didn't required to motivate by employers but to maintain this type of behaviour manger of Marks and Spencer adopt several ways. Such as they provide opportunities to these staff for self development, provide training and develop to employees which help in enhancement of potential. Along with this manger and will encourage these employees so they also perform like in future.

In respective company both theory X and theory Y both are essential because they give there contribution in completing work in effective and appropriate manner. Manager of company also make strategies according to behaviour of both employees.

Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory:-

This theory is develop by Abraham Maslow in year 1943. It is also know as theory of motivation and describe about motivation of human. It is based on assumption and perception of different stages of need of an individual which is related to there safety, basic needs, self steam and more. Respective company adopt this theory of motivation to fulfil desire of employees in effective manner which motivate them.

Physiological Needs:-

This refers to basic need of a human or employees such as air, water, cloth, food and shelter. So it is responsibilities of manger and leader of Marks and Spencer that they develop and maintain environment of workplace which fulfil physiological need of employees. For which they must maintain comfortable conduction of work, appropriate working hours, provide proper breaks for eating and drinking and many more.

Safety Needs:-

This stage is related to need of a person which provide them sense of well being and security. It can be satisfied by various factors like personal security, good health, financial security, protection from accidents and harm and many more. So manger of respective company is responsible for developing and providing safe working condition, appropriate salary, provide job security and many others (Motivating Employees with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,2019).

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Social Needs:-

This stage is related to sense of love and belonging of a person. It is essential for an individual so that they didn't feel alone, isolated and depressed, this will also affect working of a person. Manger of Marks and Spencer satisfy social need of employees by assuring that every employees know each other, motivate staffs for working in team and many more.


This factor is related to self steam and respect of an individual from other. It is important for a person to gain respect for there work because it motivate them. Manager of respective company fulfil self esteems of employees by appraising them, motivating them for there work performance. By this they feel motivated and connected towards Marks and Spencer.

Self actualizations Need:-

This represent need of a person to full fill there potential which is to become more successful and high personal. For this manger of Marks and Spencer develop or conduct training and development programmes for there employees who want to expand there career and want to do further studies.


From above discussed point it can be conclude and analysis that motivation plays an important role in attaining goal and objective in effective manner. When an employer motivate there employees in effective manner then they accomplish there work and attain goal in appropriate ways. For motivating staffs manager can use various motivational theories like theory X and Y, Maslow's need hierarchy theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory and many more. Superiors can also organized some activities related to motivating employees like appraise and recognise employees, organized activities and sessions, train employees according to requirements. This will help an organisation in attaining goal and objective in effective manner.


Books and journals

  • Koster, D., 2017. Motivation in the workplace.
  • Gagné, M. ed., 2014.The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory. Oxford Library of Psychology.
  • Chen, X. and, 2013. Information privacy, gender differences, and intrinsic motivation in the workplace.International Journal of Information Management.33(6). pp.917-926.
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