Pedagogic Principles In The Primary Phase Teaching

What do you consider to be the most effective pedagogic principles for teaching in the primary phase?

The main aim of pedagogy principle is to spread education so that suitable education can be provided to the respective concerned people. The present research study has been emphasizing on importance of pedagogy principle that promotes primary education standards which makes the teaching procedure more appropriate. Thus, the study is also emphasizing on several principles of pedagogy which are crucial to consider at the time of teaching the children. While teaching, it is crucial for the teachers to ensure that rights and obligations of children are being included in the teaching process (McDonald, Kazemi and Kavanagh, 2013). Several case studies have been accessed for the present research study for the purpose of reaching towards the defined aim and objectives.

Description has also been included regarding different research methodologies which have helped researcher to meet the aim and objective. Further, discussion has also been included regarding efforts of teachers while dealing with children’s education. The main aim of developing the present research study is to showcase the educational issues which teachers usually experience in school context. The value of teaching can only be enhanced at the time when teachers follow all the principles of pedagogy which makes things effectual and suitable (Kong and Song, 2013). Apart from this researcher has also emphasized on pedagogy principles which are most often applied in the teaching procedures.

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Literature Review

The basic principles of pedagogy are motivation, exposition, direction of activity, criticism and inviting imitation. However, these principles may overlap each other; but these principles usually assist teachers in appropriate manner. According to Laurillard, Charlton and Whittlestone, (2013), it is analysed that teachers are using ‘direction of activity’ principle wherein they make children through doing the things. This is the most important principle that is being considered by the teachers at the time of teaching students (Laurillard, Charlton and Whittlestone, 2013). However, at the same time, as per the school context, it is also ascertained that there are various teachers who merely focus on completing the part of teaching through explaining the things in accurate manner. This does not depict any sort of impact on children’s education; hence this impedes the value of education.

Adams (2016), also says that teachers usually consider ‘command and control’ aspects so as to include every part of the study. This also aims to include disciplinary aspects into account which helps the students to grow and prosper more. At the same time, it is also ascertained that learning activity delivery is yet another principle that is being designed for the purpose of managing teaching activities (Fontana and Setterfield, 2016). This basically focuses on facilitation in which delivery of education holds different importance. However, it is also been analysed that in the digital world, delivery can be largely automated in which each and every prospect of study is managed automatically. Apart from this, it can also be said that teachers use this principle because in practice, a good instructional process will represent a blending of several types of activities (Kreijns, Vermeulen and Acker, 2013).

According to Fontana and Setterfield, (2016) pedagogy principles supports for rendering superior quality education to children. Teachers teaching in school should make positive efforts for providing quality education for students. With this, there are five basic principles of pedagogy and they should be included while teaching in the classroom. Motivation, Exposition, Direction of activity, Criticism and Inviting limitation are major principles that are included among the principles of pedagogy. One of the most important principle is motivation and it is vital that children studying in the schools should be encouraged for grasping new knowledge that is being provided to them (Littlewood, 2014).

It depends on the personality of the teacher and capability of teacher for developing healthy relationship with the students. Van Manen, (2016) has mentioned that teachers should develop interest among students so that they can be directed towards acquiring new knowledge and experience. Better and positive outcomes from the educational programs could be achieved and encouraging children will support for enhancing existing experience of children. Moreover, by motivating children they can be made aware about great possibilities that are available for them in outside world.

Canagarajah, (2013) has defined that Exposition is second motivational principle that needs to be considered while teaching children in the classroom. With this, exposition is used for casting the students in a passive role by making use of this principle key points, facts and principles can be provided to the students. It is critical that ability for public performance should be there among teachers and they should also posses good subject knowledge so that they can deliver effective learning in the classroom (Canagarajah, 2013). With this, direction of activity is also one of the major principle that can be included while rendering knowledge to pupils. However, the design of activities that delivers specific objectives and for engaging children so that required objectives of classroom can be accomplished.

The principle of pedagogy can be applied in many contexts and fields such as for academic and professional teachings. Thus, in such respect, it can be said that according to the pedagogy principle, teachers are required to plan the entire curriculum so that suitable education can be delivered. There must be proper assessment of educational policies and procedures so that new things can be added to the teaching process. Focus should also be laid on academic writing so that capability of children can be enhanced.

Further, in this context it is also crucial for teachers to focus on pass, distinction and merit criteria so that student's capability and skills can be amended. According to pedagogy principle, teachers must also focus on demonstrating accurate criteria in all studies as this will have positive impact on student's capabilities.

Teachers must also focus on increasing the confidence level of students so that they can get maximum number in their studies. At the same time, pedagogy principle states that teachers are required to emphasize on student's writing and conceptual capabilities as this will help them to develop more in their career prospects. Similarly, in this way it can also be said that teachers are requisite to develop the critical thinking of students so that they can develop more. This is also essential for the purpose of enhancing student's core competencies.

Teachers managing education services in primary schools usually focus on diverse criteria so that children can get knowledge appropriately (Kumaravadivelu, 2016). At the same time, it is also analysed that teaching at primary phase typically requires new insights so that child management aspects can be managed. Along with the same, it can also be said that teachers usually experience various challenges and constraints at the time of dealing with children studying on primary level.

Research design

Research design can be described as a generalised plan that aids the researcher to get answer about the research question. Thus, according to the present study researcher has been emphasizing on exploratory technique under which case study method is being utilized in the research work. This research design does not aim to provide the final and conclusive answers to the research questions (Koh and Chai, 2014). Thus, accordingly it can be said that researcher has emphasized on effectiveness of pedagogy principle which helps teachers to strengthen the teaching process. In the present research study, researcher has made use of case study method in which several cases are being emphasized that focuses on principles of pedagogy.

Case study method is being used in the research report so that teachers can ensure that appropriate and accurate information is being given to the students in every respect. Moreover, it can also be said that researcher has also used the technique of observation so that the effectiveness of pedagogy principle in teaching can be found out (Van Manen, 2016). There are various factors that could affect the study procedure; hence to shed light on all such factors researcher focused on case study method. The key concept of teaching is also described in detailed manner along with its usefulness for students and their competency level. Further, with the help of observation, it is ascertained that pedagogy principles are being applied in teaching sector so that it can create positive impact on the teaching proceedings (Littlewood, 2014).

Research methodology

The most important section of the research study is research methodology in which researcher uses different tools and methods. This is typically done for the purpose of meeting the defined aim of the study. Therefore, looking towards the data collection aspects researcher has made use of both primary and secondary sources. This is essential in terms of collecting valid and accurate data about the study (Cunliffe, 2016). Data has been collected from several primary school teachers who are engaged in delivering suitable education to the children. Along with the same, secondary sources are also being used in the research study wherein focus has been laid on past studies regarding effectiveness of pedagogy principles in managing teaching procedure.

Several journals and articles are also being accessed for the purpose of ascertaining the validity and credibility of the research procedure (Carter and McCarthy, 2014). However, for the same aspect researcher has made inclusion and exclusion criteria so that on such basis, data can be collected easily and appropriately. The studies which are completed after 2010 are being included in the present research work; however studies made after 2010 are not included in the research process. Only English language is being used in the research study so that appropriateness and effectiveness of content can be enhanced. Defining the exclusion criteria, it can be said that researcher has not included any such article which is not made on the current topic.

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Afterwards, researcher has also used different Qualitative method for the purpose of describing the findings of the research study in appropriate manner. The method has been included because that does not require application of statistical methods which are based on numbers, tables and charts. Similarly, in this context it can also be said that researcher has also made an implementation plan in which all the activities are properly scheduled (Carter and McCarthy, 2014). This is also essential to consider so that time scale can be followed to manage the research proceedings. Apart from this, it is also vital for the researcher to focus on such things because that aids in minimizing the errors and at the same time, it leads to bring more efficiency to the research study. Since, statistical tools are not being used in the research study; therefore researcher has not applied any such tool.

Apart from this, it can also be said that to specify the findings, proper evaluation is being carried out so that valid and feasible conclusion can be stated. This is also imperative in terms of enhancing success facets of the research method (Van Manen, 2016). On the basis of secondary analysis, researcher has discussed each and every element of the research work. This is also effective for showcasing the creditability and suitability of the research procedure. Moreover, in this context it can also be said that use of such methods helped the researcher to develop valid and feasible conclusion. The study seems to be highly important for further readers as that focuses on education processes and teaching effectiveness.

Research Findings

On the basis of research findings, it is identified that teachers usually experience various issues while delivering primary education to the children. This usually happens because the comprehensive ability of students are less in initial stages (James and Pollard, 2014). According to research findings, it can be said that teachers focus chiefly on developing their skills and abilities so that appropriate knowledge and education can be delivered to the respective children. Moreover, in this respect it can also be articulated that doing and experimenting things aids the teachers to enhance the learning and knowledge aspects of the students. At the same time, it is also vital for teachers to comprehend the knowledge level of children and on that basis only, teachers must adopt necessary principles so that the level of understanding can be enhanced (Adams, 2016).

At the same time, it is also analysed that teachers need to comprehend the skills and abilities so that on such basis value of education can be encouraged. Apart from this, it is also analysed that teachers can overcome the challenges through adopting numerous methods and this can also aid in meeting the requirements of teaching procedure (Wette, 2014). This is also analysed that teachers need to be more capable in terms of understanding diverse aspects of learning and education. According to school context, teachers are required to focus on primary education tools so that they can uphold the value of education in successful manner.

Pedagogy being an art of teaching with five leading principles that greatly assists the teachers to handle the basics of primary education (Richards and Rodgers, 2014). It is on the basis of the findings acquired form the above conducted research, teachers at their initial stage of joining are mostly concerned about their job responsibilities and find it hard to handle the small kids who are the students of primary classes. Being unable to manage them in an effective manner, they often lost their control and intends to leave this occupation by undertaking it as a failure of their own (Kong and Song, 2013).

However, the current research work has greatly assisted in acknowledging the related principles of pedagogy where it is mainly composed of some elementary principles that largely supports the teachers to effectively deal with such concerning situation (Danielewicz, 2014). A foremost principle of motivation is apparent to assist the teachers to conduct instructive sessions to educate children. In addition to which, a vital presence of this factor will also aid the teachers to effectively engage the students in the educational session which is specially arranged for them. Another principle of exposition is evident to reflect as another effective approach by which the students can be taught in a profitable manner (Laurillard, Charlton and Whittlestone, 2013). This is basically in context to its less expensive requirements where the students are usually allotted a passive role to perform.

From the research findings, it has been evaluated that teaching students and specially children is quite a tough job. There has to be a follow up which needs to be considered by the teachers or every prospective individual that is making other people learn (Kong and Song, 2013). The pedagogic principles of teaching should be applied in the education so that students or children are able to learn in a more effective manner (Fontana and Setterfield, 2016). Often it happens that teacher is quite efficient in handling the students but there is no as such improvement in the performance. In these situations when principles are integrated with the teaching attributes then students are more comfortable. The use of teaching ethics and pedagogic principles helps in better learning and effective delivery of the information that is to be taught to the students (McDonald, Kazemi and Kavanagh, 2013).


Concluding the entire research process, it can be said that it is essential for teachers to consider pedagogy principles so that every aspect of education can be managed in effectual manner. Moreover, in this context it is also identified that there must be suitable teaching processes for encouraging the value of primary education. At primary phase, children are unable to comprehend anything; therefore it is essential for the teachers to adopt necessary practice so that to make the process of study more effectual and comprehensive. Apart from this, it is also evident that teachers must emphasize majorly on teaching skills and processes which gives a positive impact on children’s capability and learning skills. However, at initial stage, it is vital for teachers to ensure that every aspect of teaching is being included for meeting the appropriate standard of teaching.


  • Cunliffe, A. L., 2016. Republication of “On Becoming a Critically Reflexive Practitioner”. Journal of management education. 40(6). pp.747-768.
  • Danielewicz, J., 2014. Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education. SUNY Press.
  • Fontana, G. and Setterfield, M., 2016. Macroeconomic Theory and Macroeconomic Pedagogy. Springer.
  • James, M. and Pollard, A. eds., 2014. Principles for effective pedagogy: International responses to evidence from the UK teaching & learning research programme. Routledge.
  • Koh, J. H. L. and Chai, C. S., 2014. Teacher clusters and their perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) development through ICT lesson design. Computers & Education. 70. pp.222-232.
  • Kong, S. C. and Song, Y., 2013. A principlebased pedagogical design framework for developing constructivist learning in a seamless learning environment: A teacher development model for learning and teaching in digital classrooms. British Journal of Educational Technology. 44(6). pp.E209-E212.
  • Kreijns, K., Vermeulen, M. and Acker, F. V., 2013. Adopting the Integrative Model of Behaviour Prediction to explain teachers’ willingness to use ICT: a perspective for research on teachers’ ICT usage in pedagogical practices. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 22(1). pp.55-71.
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