Organizational behavior is a study of way people interact within groups. Organizational behavior assists the firm in understanding about behavior of its employees at workplace. This study will be based on organizational behavior. It includes human behavior in order to know about job structure, performance etc. A David and limited company will form part of this study. A David and company are involved in food and beverage industry. It provides different food products to the customers and earn turnover £10M to £20 M. This assignment will analyze the impact of culture, politics and power on the behavior of other at workplace. This study will also explain about motivation theories in order to motivate individuals and different motivational techniques which assist in achievement of organization objectives. This study will also differentiate about effective and ineffective teams. This task will include different concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior.
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How an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance of A David & company.
A culture of an organisation is very important to determine its beliefs, assumptions and values that world contribute in social and psychological environment of any organisation. Organisational culture is a set of expectations, experience as well as the values which guides the behaviour of the employees in organisation culture and behaviour is the study of the employees and their values and belief while working in an organisation (Scott and et.al., 2018). The organisational culture, its power and politics plays an important role in governing the performance of the employees and the performance of the A David & company Ltd.
The principle and belief of any organisations help in forming its culture. These organisational culture helps the employees in interacting with each other and with the organisation. Hence, the organisational culture is an important factor that can influence the performance of the employees and of an overall group in an organisation (Barnes, 2018). The organisational culture can understand by the Handy’s theory of the organisational culture. According to the Handy’s model there are four type of culture in an organisation, power, task, role and person.
- Power culture: in many organisation ng given in the hands of the few employees. It can be based on their performance or qualification. Such power are essential in decision making process. The employees who have power enjoyed a special position also. These employees can than provide the tasks to other employees. In such culture, the employees do not feel free top express their views and they have to strictly follow the instructions. In such work culture, employees feel dimotivated in such work culture, which can affect their performance and thus the productivity of overall team.
- Task culture: in such organisation the team are firmed in order to accomplish a common goal and to perform a particular task. The team is formed with employees that have common interest and specialization, so that effective solution of the task is come out. In such organisational culture every individual in a team has to contribute equally and perform in order to achieve the team objective.
- Role culture: it is a culture where every employee in the organisation is assigned the job according to their specialized knowledge, skills, and capabilities and experienced. In such work culture, employees are free to do their job as per their interest it helps in motivating the employees to work with great efficiency in order to increase their performance and the productivity of the organisation. In such culture, every employee is responsible to fulfil their task and job assigned to them, respectively.
- Person culture: In many organisations, employees take themselves ahead of the organisation. They work to satisfy their needs rather than working for organisational objectives. Such organisation is suffered with the person culture, where employees arte more concerned for their own objectives and work just to achieve their personal needs. The organisation will ultimately suffer as the employees will not work with their efficiency. The employees work just for the sake of the money and not for the organisation.
The ability to influence someone else in an organisation is termed as power. It can be a responsibility or superiority that is given to an employee on the basis of their ability and performance. They are the one who are authorised of taking decisions in the organisation and hence, enjoy a superior position than other employees (Sambrook and Herrmann, 2018). They can than delegate the authority to the subordinates. The subordinates have to follow their instructions in which they feel restricted to share their views. The performance of the employee and the productivity of the organisation can be increased if the power is utilised in the positive manner. It can be done by rewarding employees for their strong performance. It can also results in gaining power with their effective communication skills. Positive power plays a great role in influencing the working environment of the organisation.
Whereas, the power which an employee using in an negative manner can affect the performance of the employees in the organisation (Antonsen, 2017). The employees who do not treat their subordinates fairly, using inappropriate forcing manner to get the work done by them is comes under misusing of the power. Being biased to the favourites employees are comes under using the power negatively. These will not only affect the efficiency and performance of the employees but also decrease the quality of the overall organisation will declined.
It is an use of the power and social networking in an organisation to achieve certain benefits in an organisation. Politics in an organisation also very effective as employees who are involved in such politics can be more productive than other employees. There must be an political culture in an organisation to encourage the productivity in an organisational process. Establishing clear rules and objectives can be easily communicated to the employees at different level with the help of political culture. It helped in reducing the conflict environment that can affect the productivity of the organisation, whereas, the negative politics in organisation can create a negative environment which can affect the working of the employees and can hinder their performance (Shapely, 2017). There can be the conflict environment where employees are engage in unethical and dishonest or unethical behaviour to get a position in a organisation.
Content and Process theory of motivation
The motivation is an essential factors that being used by the organisation to increase the performance of its employees. There many theories and techniques that are been evolved in context of motivating the employees in an organisation the content and process theories that can be adopted by the A David & company ltd. Are:
The content theory of motivation focuses on the factors that can motivate the employees of organisation. It is concerned with the needs of the employees and their wants. Following are the content theories of motivation.
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory:
This theory studies the variables which are responsible to establish a level of satisfaction in the company. This theory focuses on what satisfied and what dissatisfied the employees in an organisation (Hatch, 2018). According to this theory, there are two factors which affect the behaviour of the employees in an organisation. The two factors in Herzberg motivational theory are:
Hygiene factors: this is the first factors which referred to the maintenance or the hygiene factor in the organisation. These factors are not considered as motivational factors but if this is not applies in the organisation, it can leads to dissatisfaction to employees related to their job. The hygiene factors that are not an intrinsic part of a job, but they are related to the condition in which the employees has to performed the job (Ma, 2018). These are the company’s administration, job security, working condition, salary, personal life etc.
Motivational factors: these factors play an important role in motivating the employees and provide high satisfaction in the job. These have the positive effect on the employees in an organisation. There are six factors that helps in motivating the employees, achievement, self-esteem, recognisation, advancement, work-itself, growth and responsibilities. An increase in these factors wiull helps in increasing the motivation of the employees. But in case they are absent it will not dissatisfied the employees in the job.
All the process theories of motivation will be based on addressing on issues which are related with how the process are working and sustaining itself over time like those factors which will be determining degree of the efforts and the continuation of efforts. So all the theories under this section will be different from content theories which are stated above as they concentrating on what are the factors of motivation for people (The Process Theories of Motivation, 2018). There are normally 3 types of theoires of motivation based on process which will define as to what are the issues relating to motivation and how the procedure will be working as well.
Equity theory- Under this theory all employees with their constantly increasing with level of efforts related to working which is againts their fellow workers. With this they will be getting their rewards for efforts which is termed to as their good and better increase of performance. If the employees are finding any kind of difference begtween their level of efforts and working of fellow workers. At this time they will be adjusting their own performance either down or up with taking certain type of measures so that their level of performance could be improved. If they are comparing their efforts with performanc of other employees and finding that there is no such difference between both of them then this will be called to as equity as this is the situation to maintain motivation.
Expectancy theory- This theory is concerned with motivation being the decision making process that will evaluate efforts for the outcome. The expectancy theory will be highlighting contributing with choice of user within process and active cognitive process with including importnace of outcome that is valued for rewarding individual.
Porter- Lawler Model- As per this model theory of motivation is mainly based on expectancy theory that is on workplace motivation (De Vito, Cianci and Mujtaba, 2018). All the theories of motiavtion will be included within this model with having elements of all other process and content theories of motivation. Although this model is very much complex that of individual theories that includes that reward provided to individual will be having practical limiation.
All these theories of motivation whether it is process and content one will be having effective achievemnet of goals within A David & Co Limited which is food and beverages company. With the help of motivationall theories employer will be able to motivate its employees so that they could be performing as per the target set to achieve goal of A David & Co Limited.
Differentiate between effective and ineffective team
Effective team consists of individual and group working together to achieve the common goal of organization. It involves individuals and groups to effectively achieve the objectives. Ineffective team consists of those individual and group which are not productive for organization and are inefficient towards achieving the organizational objectives (Gunes, Solak and Sariel, 2016). The following table will be based on difference between effective and ineffective team.
Basis of difference
Effective team is that which work in a group to achieve the common objectives of the organization. Effective team assists the organization in increasing their productivity by efficiently working towards the group goals.
Ineffective team refers to that group which does not work together and thus they are not able to achieve the group goals. Ineffective team does not have clear goals and thus there is lack of effectiveness.
Effective teams have clear goals which assist them in achieving the objectives effectively. It helps them in understanding about the purpose of forming a team and thus clear objectives provide direction to team in order to achieve the target.
Ineffective teams do not contain clear objectives due to which team member are not able to achieve the target easily. Members of ineffective team does not gave clear group goals which leads to unproductive result and firm is unable to achieve the target of forming a team.
Effective team have good communication process which assist them in increasing their efficiency and reducing conflicts between team members which assist the firm in achieving the group goals easily.
Ineffective team does not have effective communication process due to which conflicts arises between different members of organizations. Ineffective communication between team members hampers the working environment and thus there is lack of communication between members.
Decision – Making
Team leaders of effective team involves all the members to participate in decision – making process in order to bring new ideas and innovation to improve the efficiency and performance level of members to achieve the objectives effectively. Decision is made with the agreement of every member of group (Willems, 2016).
Decision- making in ineffective teams is taken by the dominant members of the group due to which other members of group are not involved and thus it makes an ineffective team due to which objectives of organization is not achieved.
Team leader of effective team provide motivation to its members in order to encourage them to increase their performance level in order achieve individual and group goals.
Leaders of ineffective give the members negative motivation due to which employees are demotivated and punished for working properly.
Trust and commitment
Effective team members have faith on each members of the group and are committed towards the work in order to achieve the targeted goals of organization.
Members of Ineffective team does not have trust on the other member of group due to which work in not properly managed and thus it leads to ineffective results.
Effective team leader provide right direction to its team member in order achieve the objectives of group. Team leader have strong leadership qualities which helps them in making right decision and provide clear objectives to achieve the objectives of firm.
Leader of ineffective does not have clear knowledge and skills which hampers the working of team as team leader is not able to provide direction to team to achieve the objectives of enterprise.
There are different group development theories which lead to dynamic cooperation. It consists of Belbin typology theory and Tuckmen theory of group development. Belbin theory is based on behavior of team members and have identified three roles on the basis of which behavior of team member is identified for cooperation.
- Action- oriented roles: This role of Belbin Theory focuses on improving team performance. It puts ideas into actions to achieve the desired results in a specified time. The following are the three action- oriented roles :
- Shaper: These are those people which focus on improving the performance of members by providing them with different challenges (Senaratne and Gunawardane, 2015). Shaper include extrovert people have questioning norms and provide solutions by choosing the best approaches.
- Implementer: Implementer is a person which brings self- discipline in the team to complete the task assigned. They implement the ideas of team into action.
- Completer- finisher: Completer – finisher are people which focuses on task in order to reduce omission and errors in completing the task. They pay attention on every detail of the task in order to complete the project in proper way.
- People – oriented roles: This role focuses on bringing people and ideas together. It lays emphasis on improving performance level and increases their efficiency level. The following are included in people- oriented roles :
- Coordinator: Coordinator is a person which order to the team. They are the person which provides direction to team.
- Team worker: these are the people which provide support to the members of team and ensure that people within team works effectively towards objectives of group (Britt and et.al., 2016).
- Resource Investigator: This is the person that creates contact with the outsiders in order know about resources which are available for the team.Thought –oriented roles: These roles provide technical expertise on the basis of options available for the team. It consist of three roles:
- Plant: It is related to innovative ideas as they provide new ideas in order to achieve the objectives of group.
- Monitor – evaluator: It is the person that assess team decisions analytically and critically.
- Specialist: Specialist is the people which have knowledge and skills relating to particular subject matter.
Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour A David & Co Limited
The Path-goal theory of motivation is very much important as this is based on style and behaiour of leader which is suiting to employees in way of guiding them as this theory is highly based on Vroom expectancy model of 1964. All type of goal which company is setting will be increasing their motivation, satisfaction and empowerment as well which will head for becoming productive members of company (Sherman, Gawronski and Trope, 2014). Under this theory it is based that all employees are behaving in specified manner which is upon their expectance.
The way objective hypothesis can best be thought of as a procedure in which pioneers select particular practices that are most appropriate to the representatives' needs and the workplace with the goal that they may best guide the workers through their way in the acquisition of their day by day work exercises (objectives). While Path-Goal Theory is anything but a point by point process, it by and large pursues these essential strides as appeared in the realistic underneath:
- Determine the representative and ecological attributes
- Select an administration style
- Focus on persuasive components that will enable the representative to succeed
Representatives decipher their pioneer's conduct dependent on their necessities, for example, the level of structure they require, alliance, seen level of capacity, and want for control. Hence, a pioneer needs to comprehend their representatives so they know how to best persuade them.
Assignment and Environmental Characteristics
Beating obstructions is an extraordinary focal point of way objective hypothesis. In the event that a hindrance turns out to be excessively solid, at that point the pioneer needs, making it impossible to venture in and enable the representative to choose a way to work around it. A portion of the more troublesome undertaking qualities that frequently emerge are:
Structure of the assignment- The plan of the errand may require the pioneer's help. For instance, if the errand is equivocal, at that point the pioneer may need to give it more structure or a to a great degree troublesome undertaking may call for pioneer bolster.
Formal expert framework- Depending upon the errand specialist, the pioneer can give clear objectives and additionally give the worker a few or all control.
Work gathering- If the group is non-strong, at that point the pioneer should be cohesiveness and embrace esprit-de-corps that gives comradeship, energy, and commitment to all colleagues.
Pioneer Behavior or Style
The autonomous factors of Path-Goal Theory are the pioneer's conduct — the pioneer changes her style of conduct to the worker and assignment attributes so the representative's inspiration is to exceed expectations at their objective (Miner, 2015).
- Thought - relationship practices, for example, regard and trust.
- Starting Structure - assignment practices, for example, arranging, booking, and seeing that work is finished.
The principal conduct recorded underneath, Directive, depends on starting structure. The other three (accomplishment, participative, and strong) depend on thought.
The four way objective kinds of pioneer practices are:
Order: The pioneer illuminates her adherents on what is anticipated from them, for example, instructing them, how to play out an errand, and booking and planning work. It is best when individuals are uncertain about the undertaking or when there is a great deal of vulnerability inside the earth.
Strong: The pioneer makes work charming for the specialists by demonstrating worry for them and by being polite and pleasant. It is best in circumstances in which assignments and connections are physically or mentally difficult.
Participative: The pioneer counsels with his devotees previously settling on a choice on the best way to continue. It is best when subordinates are exceptionally prepared and engaged with their work.
Accomplishment: The pioneer defines testing objectives for devotees, anticipates that them will perform at their most elevated amount, and shows trust in their capacity to meet this desire. It is best in expert workplaces, for example, specialized, logical; or accomplishment conditions, for example, deals.
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From the above project which is based on organisational behaviour it could be analysied that there are many types of motivational theories like that of process and content which help in motivating their employees. It is very much reqiured that employer is identifying need and want of motivation among their workers so that they could be able to help them in achieveing goal and target of company. Other than these it could also be concluded that power, politics and culture of company will be impacting individual and team behaviours and their performance on larger extent.
If there is positive form of power and cultuer into company then employees could work in their most effective manner. It is very much important to effectively cooperate with others into a team so that that would be helpful for company and individual to grow and develop. So it is very much required that company is able to draw importance for culture and behiavour of organisation especially if they are working as team.
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