Organisational Behaviour


Organizational behaviour refers to study of human behaviour within an organisation it means who they react in a team or group or as an individual. It also include concern relate to understanding, predicating, production and control of individual behaviour within a workplace (Robbins and, 2013). Organisation taken for this assignment is A David & Co Ltd. Which is operating there business in food and beverage development industry. Its founders are David Michael and Herman Hertz and headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United State. They serve their products and services in worldwide market. Topics which are included in this assignment are influence of culture, politics and power on others behaviours, method of motivation in order to achieve goal and objective. Along with this it include application of organisational behaviour within an organisation and how to develop effective team and group.

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Task 1

P1.Analyse how an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance

In an organisation workplace culture, power and politics affect behaviour and performance of an individual and group. For analysis of these A David & Co Ltd. Use various theories and methods such as for culture company use Handy's four classes, for power they use French and raven theory and so on. Description of all these theories in context of respective company are given below:-

Culture:- Organization culture refers to adjoining value, principles and beliefs which employees shares within an organisation. These values are originated from company's history, market, strategies, technology and many more. By effective organisation culture employer able to maintain and develop unity, loyalty, competition and other in appropriate manner (Wood and,2012). Culture of an organization influence behaviour and performance of an individual and group. This is so because if there is any change occurs in culture like change in strategies then employees and group performance get affected. For establishing and managing proper organisation culture A David & Co use Handy's method which is mentioned below-

  • Power: It refers to condition in which power is under hand of an individual or few peoples, only they are authorised to take decision according to situation. These peoples do delegation of authority to other employees or staff with in respective company. Power of a person affects behaviour and performance of employees such as if power is in wrong hand he/ she will make wrong decision which demotivates other. This will directly and indirectly affect performance and behaviour of other employees along with this it will affect productivity and profitability of A David & Co Ltd.
  • Role: In this culture role and responsibilities of every employees or staff is delegated according to their education, knowledge, experiences, specialization and interest. In this particular situation employees of respective company do give their best to accomplish their work in appropriate and effective manner (Coccia, 2015). In this every staff is accountable for their work and task. By this behaviour and performance of individual and group affect such as if employees get role and responsibilities according to their efficiency then there is enhancement in staff performance as well as in group performance.
  • Task: This culture is refers to situation where a team is formed in order to achieve target or solve any issues or problems. According to this employees who have common interest come together in order to form team or group and in team there are four to five individuals. In this every employees have their own responsibility for completion of work in appropriate and effective manner. Employers of A David & Co Ltd form a team or group according to skills and abilities required for particular task. By this they able to conduct work in appropriate manner. Behaviour and performance of employees get influence according to their task.
  • Person:It refers to culture in which a person thinks themselves superior to their organisation. According to this situation employees come to office for earning money and they never interact to other employees and feel connected to organisation which leads to decrease in respective company loss (Thomson and Van, 2012). Employers of A David & Co Ltd motivate their employees so that they feel connected and conduct their work in appropriate and effective manner.

Power: - It refers to authority which is linked or connected to an individual or more who is responsible for taking decision and accomplishment of work in appropriate and effective manner. Power of a person affects their leadership style and its succession. A person who has power can use it in negative and positive manner and this will affect performance and behaviour of other peoples. A David & Co Ltd Company use French and raven theory in which power is divided into five form which is explain below in context of respective company-

  • Coercive Power: It refers to ability of a person to take things away from their employees and it is opposite from reward power. It is use for both purposes for motivating employees or for punishing them. This sometime leads to unhealthy behaviour, performance and dissatisfaction of employees within respective company. Which directly and indirectly influence or affect individual or team performance.
  • Reward Power: It refers to type of power which a manager uses when they want to motivate or reward someone in order to encourage them for their good performance. In is a situation which refers to situation that a person performs well or effective when they know they will get reward in return (Hyde, Harris and Boaden, 2013). This type of power influence behaviour and performance of employees and encourage them to work in effective and appropriate manner.
  • Legitimate Power: It is a situation when a person or individual receive some short of power with specific position. In this power of a particular person is more granted because they get it with their particular position or role. This will influence person's behaviour and performance because when they get some additional authority with their role they will conduct their work in more appropriate manner.
  • Referent Power: This type of power is not related to particular task or position; it refers to power of a person which is based on person's attitude, charm, good looks and many others. In this there is not any logical reason for having particular power but person have it due to some reason. Such as if a person is good looking and talk nicely then they have the power to attract and influence other in effective and efficient manner.
  • Expert Power: It is a power which people get when they get expert in particular field, task or job. This type of leader are highly intelligent, knowledgeable and experienced who done there work or task in appropriate and effective manner (Teh and Sun, 2012). Other employees also get motivated and respect them, along with this they also take advice from these type of which show that they can influence performance and behaviour of employees.

Politics:- It refers to various type of activities which is associated with organisation and their employees improvement and interest. Which help manager and leader of A David & Co Ltd company to conduct work in appropriate and effective manner. By this they able to assign work or task in appropriate manner which help them in enhancing productivity of employees. Along with this manager of respective company also able to minimise or ignore conflict within a workplace. This is occur due to various reasons such as discrimination due to gender, colour, values etc., salary issues and many more.

By all these factor behaviour and performance of an individual and team of A David & Co Ltd company get affected in positive or negative manner. If manager and leader get understand and adopt these factors in proper manner it will help them in achieving goal and objectives in effective manner.

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Task 2

P2.Evaluate how content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals

For conducting work in appropriate and effective manner employer has to motive their employees so they feel connected and conduct their work in proper manner in order to achieve goal and objectives (Christina and, 2014). Motivation is refers to need which required satisfaction and which inspire an individual to perform their work or task in appropriate and effective manner. An effective manager or leader does various activities to motivate their employees such as reward, appraise, and many more. Manager of A David & Co Ltd company adopt different motivational techniques of content and process which is mentioned below:-

Content Theory-

This refers to situation which is change according to time or situation. In it there are various theories are included. By adopting these theories employer and employees able to motivate themselves to conduct work in proper manner so that they able to satisfy there need and wants in effective and appropriate manner (Fuchs and Edwards, 2012). Theory which is adopted by respective company is Maslow need hierarchy theory which is explained below:-

Maslow needs hierarchy theory-

This theory is based on need and want of a person which is display in a pyramid form. In bottom level there basic need are represent and when level get up need of a person also get increases according to requirement.

Physiological need: This refers to biological requirement of an individual such as water, food, cloth, sleep and many more. These factors or element help a person in there survivals in appropriate and effective manner. So manager of respective company first make strategies to fulfil basic need of employees so that they feel motivated.

Safety and security need: When basic needs of a person get satisfy, next major requirement or need is safety of a person in term of financial, health and wellness and security against accident and any injury (Wong, Wong and Ngo, 2012). For which manager of this company provide appropriate salary to employees, do medical insurance and provide medical facilities for which they feel motivate and connected toward workplace.

Social need: Next major need after safety is social need in which those factors are include which are related to love, acceptance, belongingness, family and many more. This need can be fulfil by family, friendship, social group etc. (Xerri and Brunetto, 2013). For this manager of respective company give personal time to employees so that they can spend time with their family and friends. They also organise some function and activities in which employees and his/ her family are invited.

Esteem need:This refers to respect of a person which can be done in two ways internal and external. Internal include self respect, confidence, achievements, freedom and so on whereas external include power, recognition, status, reward and many more. Manager of ADavid & Co Ltd recognises and motivate their employees according to their performance so that they feel connected and perform work in appropriate manner.

Self-actualization need:This refers to self need of a person what he/ she is and what they want to become in future. It refers to growth and satisfaction of self actualization need and in this an individual work to satisfy their need and requirement (Kazemipour and Mohd, 2012). For this manage of respective company motivate and provide training to their employees who want to develop their careers. By this employees feel connected and motivated towards company.

Process Theory- Process theory is refers to system which is depending on idea which describe about how an entity can change and establish. Process which is adopted by A David & Co Ltd company is Vroom’s Expectancy Theory which is explain below in respect of company:-

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory-

This theory is developed by Victor. H. Vroom which is based on perception of an individual that encourage and motivate them to accomplish their work in effective and appropriate manner in order to attain goal and objective in effective and efficient manner. It is basically divided into three categories which are explained below in context of respective company:-

  • Valence: It refers to situation when an individual get inspired from particular outcome or strength which encourage them to work in effective and efficient manner. Such as in A David & Co Ltd. company particular employee get motivated by promotion so whether he/ she high increment or incentives they will not get motivated.
  • Instrumentality: It is a second category ofthis model in which an individual get motivated from any outcome and this will encourage them work in effective and efficient manner (Coccia and Cadario, 2014). Such as in respective company staff thinks that promotion is essential for achieving goal because they feel that for attaining objective in effective manner superior people performance plays major role.
  • Expectancy: It is a last factor of this model that determines motivation of a person which is basically probability that particular task leads to any effective outcome or result. Such as manger of respective company analysis performance of employees which help them in attaining goal and objectives in effective and efficient manner.

By adopting these theories in effective mannerA David & Co Ltd. Company able to attain goal and objectives in effective and efficient manner. Along with this they able to motivate their employees or staff in appropriate ways due to which they perform their work in proper manner.

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Task 3

P3.Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team

Team refers to group of an individual who work together in order to attain common goal and objective, along with this they are independent on each other to fulfil goal in appropriate manner (Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola, 2013). In an organization when employees work in a team then objective is fulfil in appropriate ways and it will also motivate employees. T identify effectiveness of good team A David& Co Ltd compare effective team with ineffective team which is motioned below:-


Effective team

In effective team


In this environment of team or workplace is productive because every members share their views and ideas.

In this team environment is informal and employee not share their ideas because they feel shy or uncomfortable.

Delegation of role

In this delegation of role and responsibility are done on the basis of staff performance, skills and ability.

Whereas in this type of team delegation of authority is done according to specification which affected performance of staff.

In an organization there are three types of team that are problem solving team which is develop by different peoples and expertise whose main objective is to solve issues and problems in permanent manner (Odetunde, 2013). Virtual team refers to type of team which work independently without get affected from barriers or time. Whereas functional team refer to team which perform variety of functions in order to achieve goal and objective in effective and efficient manner. Theory which is use A David & Co Ltd. Company is Tuck man team develop theory which is explain below:-

Forming: In this stage group is form according to work requirement so that task will accomplish in effective and efficient manner. In this step team members are dependent on leader of because they didn’t know about work or task (Robbins and, 2013). At this there is less chance of conflict situation this is s because at this employees are busy in identifying their position.

Storming: Next stage s storming in which group member start interacting and communicating each other and try to know each other strength and weaknesses. In this all team member’s discus about idea and their role and responsibilities which they are going to perform in order to complete task.

Norming: At this stage team members start developing perception regarding each other on basis of strength and weakness. Which sometime leads to conflict situation and then leader had to develop plans in order to avoid particular situation. After resolving conflict and knowing strength and weakness employee work according and help each other in order to achieve goal in proper manner.

Performing: In this particular stage group members perform their task in order to attain goal and objective in appropriate and effective manner. In this all team member give their full efforts and conduct work in smooth manner.

Adjourning: It is consider as last stage of this theory which is done after completion of work or task in appropriate manner (Wood and,2012). In this step task or project gets completed and team get dispersed. In this people also develop some effective relations which stay long due to work together.

When team is from there are different different peoples in a team due to which manger and leader of respective company use Theory X and Y. Which help them in understanding employees in effective and appropriate manner.

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Task 4

P4.Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour and a given business situation

Organizational behaviour is refer to behaviour of an individual that how he/ she react or act in workplace or alone. It is use by almost every organization in order to understand nature of staff in appropriate manner. In respective company it important because their employees commutate with customer to sell products. So by understanding nature or behaviour of staff A David & Co Ltd can provide training to employee in appropriate manner. It includes factors like structure, power, policies, style, culture and many more. There are various type of theories which is adopt by company such as path goal theory, leadership theory and many more. A David & Co Ltd adopt path goal theory, which is explain below:-

Path goal theory:-

It is develop by Robert House and it in this leaders motivate their staffs to achieve goal and objectives in appropriate and effective manner. Leader who follow path goal theory behave and create environment which motivate employees in effective and appropriate manner (Coccia, 2015). In respective company manager and leader motivate employees by adopting various methods like reward them, appraise them, organize activities and many more. In this there are four type of leadership is mentioned which are direct, supportive, participative and achievement oriented leadership. Below is explanation of how these leader work:-

Behaviour of leader

Group members

Task characteristics

Direct Leadership




Unclear rules


Supportive Leadership


Need human contact




Participative Leadership

Require control

Need clarity



Achievement Oriented Leadership

Need to excel

Advanced expectations




From above discussed point it can be conclude that understanding of organizational behaviour is essential for attaining goal in effective manner. In an organization behaviour of an individual and team got influenced by culture, politics and power and for understanding of this company use theories like Handy's four classes, French and raven theory and so on. There are also various motivational techniques which are use by a company in form of theories such as Maslow’s need theory, theory X and Y, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory and many others. To form an effective team manger and leader of an organization use Tuck man team development theory. There are various philosophies of organization behaviour which is use by a firm according to situation and conduction.

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Books and journals

  • Robbins, S. and, 2013.Organisational behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.
  • Wood, J. and, 2012.Organisational behaviour: Core concepts and applications. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd..
  • Coccia, M., 2015. Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources.
  • Thomson, K. and Van Niekerk, J., 2012. Combating information security apathy by encouraging prosocial organisational behaviour.Information Management & Computer Security.20(1). pp.39-46.
  • Hyde, P., Harris, C. and Boaden, R., 2013. Pro-social organisational behaviour of health care workers.The International Journal of Human Resource Management.24(16). pp.3115-3130.
  • Teh, P.L. and Sun, H., 2012. Knowledge sharing, job attitudes and organisational citizenship behaviour.Industrial Management & Data Systems.112(1). pp.64-82.
  • Christina, S. and, 2014. How organisational behaviour and attitudes can impact building energy use in the UK retail environment: a theoretical framework.Architectural Engineering and Design Management.10(1-2). pp.164-179.
  • Fuchs, S. and Edwards, M.R., 2012. Predicting prochange behaviour: The role of perceived organisational justice and organisational identification.Human Resource Management Journal.22(1). pp.39-59.
  • Wong, Y.T., Wong, C.S. and Ngo, H.Y., 2012. The effects of trust in organisation and perceived organisational support on organisational citizenship behaviour: a test of three competing models.The International Journal of Human Resource Management.23(2). pp.278-293.
  • Xerri, M.J. and Brunetto, Y., 2013. Fostering innovative behaviour: The importance of employee commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour.The International Journal of Human Resource Management.24(16). pp.3163-3177.
  • Kazemipour, F. and Mohd Amin, S., 2012. The impact of workplace spirituality dimensions on organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses with the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment.Journal of Nursing Management. 20(8). pp.1039-1048.
  • Coccia, M. and Cadario, E., 2014. Organisational (un) learning of public research labs in turbulent context.Int. J. Innovation and Learning.15(2). pp.115-129.
  • Unsworth, K.L., Dmitrieva, A. and Adriasola, E., 2013. Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating proenvironmental behaviour change.Journal of Organizational Behavior.34(2). pp.211-229.
  • Odetunde, O.J., 2013. Influence of transformational and transactional leaderships, and leaders' sex on organisational conflict management behaviour.Gender and Behaviour.11(1). pp.5323-5335.
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